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Two of these—the parka of the Aleutian Islands and the anorak of Greenland—have become essential items of modern dress. The Aztec settled in Mexico about the 12th century. The men wore loincloths, the women tunics and skirts, all made from woven cotton fabric.
Ornamental cloaks were worn as garments of rank. The decoration of Aztec costume was chiefly by exotic plumes, but fur also was used.
The Aztec elite wore a great deal of jewelry, mainly of gold. Their culture flourished chiefly between and ce. They also wore few garments: Cotton and sisal were cultivated; women were responsible for spinning and weaving these fibres.
The Maya also developed a method of tie-dyeing the yarn and of weaving patterns using bright colours for dyes. Embroidery also was practiced. Cotton fabrics were mainly reserved for upper-class wear, as were beautifully decorated leather belts and sandals. For the ordinary people, tapa—a cloth derived from tree bark, as in Polynesia—was made. An important part of Mayan decoration was provided by feathers from birds of brilliant plumage, which were skillfully incorporated into the weaving processes.
The feathers were also widely used in the ornamentation of headdresses. The long, iridescent tail feathers of the quetzal , a member of the trogon family of birds, were especially prized, as they were in Aztec dress. The Inca came from the valley of Cuzco in the high mountains of Peru. During the 15th century they established a powerful empire of several million people in what are now Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador, and extending into parts of Argentina and Chile. Their attire was brightly coloured and decorated by feathers—indeed some of their fine cloaks were made entirely of feathers woven into a cotton fabric base.
They kept herds of llamas for wool and hunted other animals, such as the chinchilla , for their fur. Nonetheless, Inca garments were simple in construction: The poncho was the most usual cloak. People went barefoot or wore sandals. They also frequently went bareheaded or, in bad weather, adopted a woolen cap or turban. The style of costume worn throughout the Middle East has been remarkably constant for centuries.
This is partly because it has evolved as one suited to the climate, serving as a protection against heat, dust, and blazing sunshine. The wearing of traditional clothing has also been accepted and supported by many Muslim countries. The traditional garments of the Middle East are loose-fitting and cover or even envelop much of the body.
The names of these garments vary from country to country, but the similarity between them is clear. Likewise the materials from which they were, and still are, made vary according to what is available. In general, linen, cotton, and wool are the norm, but the well-to-do have always worn garments made from rich fabrics with a silk base. Several of the most famous of these materials originated in this area, including baldachin , the richly decorated fabric with a warp of gold thread and a weft of silk, named after the city of Baghdad, and damask , named after Damascus in Syria , the source of this richly patterned silk fabric.
A number of the traditional garments were originally derived from ancient cultures in the region, particularly from Persia Iran and farther east in India, Mongolia, and Asian Russia. The caftan is one such example. It is an open, coatlike garment, termed in ancient Persia a candys or kandys.
Also worn extensively in the cooler climates of Mongolia and China, the style extended westward to become, eventually, the fashionable dolman of the late Ottoman Empire. The spread of the characteristic costume of the Middle East was due in large part to the spread of Arab peoples and cultures.
The people of the Arabian Desert were by the 6th century ce leading a stable, rural life in the border areas of Yemen, Syria, and Iraq; in the interior region they were largely Bedouin nomads raising camel herds for a living.
The chief garments worn at that time were a loose shirt, chemise, or robe; a draped cloak; wide, baggy trousers; and a head cloth or turban. Similar versions of these may still be seen on the streets of Cairo, Istanbul, or Damascus. The simple basic garment for both sexes was a loose, long shirt, chemise, or tunic, which often had long sleeves.
Over this men wore a robe or mantle of various types. It was traditionally made of heavy cream-coloured wool decorated with brightly coloured stripes or embroidery.
A voluminous outer gown still worn throughout the Middle East in the Arab world is the jellaba , known as the jellabah in Tunisia, a jubbeh in Syria, a gallibiya in Egypt, or a dishdasha in Algeria. The garment generally has wide, long sleeves, and the long skirt may be slit up the sides; some styles are open in front like a coat or caftan. Outer gowns or cloaks sometimes incorporated head coverings.
These included the haik, which was an oblong piece of material generally striped that the Arabs used to wrap around their bodies and heads for day or night wear; the material measured about 18 feet by 6 feet 5. A similar mantle was the burnous, a hooded garment also used for warmth day or night.
The loose, baggy trousers traditional to the Middle East, as well as to the Balkans and Anatolia, are still widely worn by both sexes.
The garment is believed to have originated in Persia, and it is presumed that the Arabs saw it there when they invaded that country in the 7th century. The full, leg portion was tied at each ankle.
A broad sash then encircled the waist, on top of the chalvar. Worn in this way the garment was ideal for working in the fields because it allowed freedom of movement and protected the lumbar region of the spine, especially while bending, from chills.
For centuries the garment has also been adopted by men in the fighting forces. Cotton is the usual material for working attire, but fashionable ladies wear a chalvar made from a brocade or silk fabric over linen drawers. The tradition for women to cover themselves from head to toe and veil their faces when they go out in public is an old one, predating Islam in Persia, Syria, and Anatolia.
However, some modern regimes have insisted on the strict veiling of women in public. The enveloping cloaks worn by women for this purpose are similar to one another and often incorporate a mesh panel through which women may peer at the world outside.
The characteristic masculine Arab headdress has been the kaffiyeh. It is still worn today, although it may now accompany a business suit.
Basically, the kaffiyeh is a square of cotton, linen, wool, or silk, either plain or patterned, that is folded into a triangle and placed upon the head so that one point falls on to each shoulder and the third down the back. It is held in place on the head by the agal igal , egal , a corded band decorated with beads or metallic threads. Footwear was in the form of sandals, shoes, or boots, with the toes slightly turned up. Women traditionally wore decorative wooden pattens called kub-kobs to walk about in muddy unpaved streets.
In ce the Roman emperor Constantine I decided to rebuild the great city at Byzantium, then a Greek centre. The city was sited strategically on the Bosporus, whose narrow waters connecting the Mediterranean and the Black Sea acted as a gateway between West and East. Constantine called his city New Rome; it was later renamed Constantinople now Istanbul in his honour. After the collapse of the western part of the Roman Empire, which was based in Rome and later Ravenna , Constantinople became the capital city of the Christian-dominated Byzantine Empire , the extent of which fluctuated considerably until its collapse in Owing to the site of its capital city, the empire was subject to a complex of influences that were nowhere more marked than in the dress of its ruling classes.
Over the centuries there were two notable periods of wealth and prosperity that were reflected in costume. The first period was in the time of the emperor Justinian I , who reigned from to ce. Until this time the influence of Rome was still strong, and dress styles tended to be draped in the fashion of the later years of the empire.
There were differences, however, derived in part from Persian and Anatolian designs, such as the use of sewn, closer-fitting garments and richer ornamentation and jewelry. In addition, because of its success as a trade centre between East and West, the Byzantine Empire had become extremely wealthy. This wealth led to a costume of magnificent splendour that became the envy of the known world. Luxury fabrics from Asia, Syria, and Egypt became available in quantity and were utilized, despite the high cost, by the leading members of society.
The domestic textile industry was also stimulated. Its development was greatly aided by the introduction of sericulture into Constantinople.
The Chinese had guarded secrets of the manufacture of silk for hundreds of years, but by about bce silkworm culture and silk manufacture had been established in northern India, and the knowledge later percolated through to Korea, Japan, Persia, and Central Asia.
Justinian had tried early in his reign to divert the silk trade from its route from Persia but without success. He was presented with a tremendous opportunity when two Persian monks, who had worked as missionaries in China and had studied the process of sericulture and the weaving of the filaments, agreed to smuggle this knowledge, as well as the necessary silkworm eggs, to Constantinople in exchange for a large monetary reward.
Silkworms flourished in Constantinople, and the authorities there, like the Chinese and others before them, guarded the secrets of the process and controlled their monopoly in Europe until, inevitably, in the early Middle Ages, the knowledge and means were once more disseminated , this time to Anatolia and Sicily and from there gradually to Italy and France. The use of these heavy lustrous fabrics gradually altered the style of dress; the stiff, ornate materials lent themselves to a simpler cut with only a few folds to break up the often allover, large-motif designs.
For both men and women a more fitted, sewn tunic, cinched at the waist by a richly decorated wide belt and hanging straight to knee or ankle, replaced the Roman draped tunica. A rich, deep decorative collar, like the preceding Egyptian and Etruscan versions, covered the shoulders. The influence of the Christian church could be seen in the fact that the limbs were generally covered by long, usually fitted sleeves and cloth or silken hose.
Cloaks, pinned at the shoulder, were worn outdoors. Imperial dress was characterized by the extensive use of purple and gold. Garments for the wealthy were vividly coloured in reds, yellows, and greens.
The second period of expansion and prosperity came between the 9th and 11th centuries. Court dress became richer than ever, encrusted with jeweled embroideries and dyed in deep colours, especially purples and reds. Imperial dress included a long panel of gold-embroidered material, which was wrapped around the body with the end hung over one arm. The classical line had completely given place to an Eastern form of dress. For example, the caftan had been adopted as formal wear.
Open down the centre front, this coatlike garment was shaped to fit at the back. For both sexes the caftan was accompanied by trousers, not full like the Middle Eastern chalvar but more elegantly and closely cut, especially on the lower limbs where they were tucked into boot tops or worn over shoes.
Byzantine dress strongly influenced that of eastern Europe, especially the Balkans and Russia. Some of the bejeweled silk formal garments were gradually adopted by the church to become vestments in the Middle Ages.
Men tended to prefer leather boots in footwear, black for normal use and red at court. Women sometimes wore sandals but more often were found in soft, ankle-height shoes, brightly coloured and embroidered. Masculine hairstyles were short, and men were mostly clean-shaven.
Outdoors they adopted the Phrygian cap or a hood. Women wore veils and often encased their long hair in a silk cap or a pearl net. Elaborate jewelry was characteristic of all Byzantine dress of the upper classes. Perfume was liberally applied but cosmetics less so. The dress of Europeans during the years from the collapse of the western part of the Roman Empire in the 5th century ce to about was slow to change and was largely standardized over a wide area.
Clothes for men and women were similar, being sewn albeit crudely and loosely cut. A shirt or chemise and braies —that is, a roughly fitting kind of drawers—constituted underwear. These were of a natural coloured linen. The shirt was hip-length for men, longer for women. It had a round neck, slit in front for ease of donning, and was tied with a drawstring; the braies were similarly fastened at the waist. On top of this was worn one or more tunics—knee- or ankle-length for men and ground-length for women.
The tunic had a round neckline and long sleeves cut in one with the garment; it was loose fitting but girded at the waist. Tunics were made from coloured linen or wool and were decorated with embroidered bands at the neck, wrists, and hem. Legs were covered with ill-fitting hose, which were cut from cloth in two vertical sections and sewn together. They were held up by banding or garters. Thirteenth-century dress was noted for its plainness.
There was little or no decoration, and garments were unbelted. A sleeveless surcoat was generally worn over the tunic. This had derived in the late 12th century from the tabard, a garment worn by crusading knights over their armour to prevent the sun from reflecting off the metal and making them visible to an enemy. The surcoat , which was worn by both men and women, often had slits called fitchets on each hip so that the waist belt underneath with purse attached could be reached without fear of thieves.
Women wore their hair long, parted in the centre, and plaited and then pinned up at the sides; they then pinned a white linen neckcloth to the plaits on each side the wimple , concealing the hair, and on top of this wore a veil, a white linen crown, or a pillbox cap. Such headdresses were known by a variety of names, including barbette , fillet, and touret. Toward a great change occurred in costume. Clothes increasingly were tailored to fit and display the human figure.
The ability to tailor garments improved. More and better fabrics were now reaching the West from Italy and farther east. But perhaps the most important reason for sartorial change was the spread of the Renaissance movement from Italy.
A movement both spiritual and secular , the Renaissance was dedicated to reviving Classical concepts and to celebrating the dignity and importance of human beings. This was expressed in costume by the beautification and display of the human figure.
During the remainder of the medieval period, men wore close-fitting, modish clothes, such as the fitted tunic, which was cut into four sections that were seamed at the centre back and at the sides and fastened with buttons centre front.
By —45 this tunic was hip-length with a heavy leather belt decorated with metal and jeweled brooches encircling the hips only a few inches above the hem. The undertunic, of similar cut, had long sleeves, buttoned to fit closely from elbow to wrist. The hose were now fitted more closely also. These stockings were cut from velvet, silk, or woolen cloth in four sections and extended from the foot to the upper thigh, where they were attached by points laces with metal tag ends to the lower edge of the undertunic.
By —80 the hose grew longer to become tights and were laced by points all around the body to the by-then waist-length undertunic. As outer tunics also became increasingly short in the early 15th century, a codpiece became necessary. This was a bag covering the front opening between the two legs and was attached by points to the hose. The name derives from the medieval term cod , meaning bag. The neckline was lowered and was cut straight across at shoulder level.
Below the hips the skirt was gored, very full, and long. Another gown, called a sideless surcoat, was often worn on top.
This had no sleeves but had a very large armhole to display the gown beneath; the armholes and a front panel known as the plastron were often trimmed with fur. There were several new forms of decoration at this time. One was parti-colouring, in which all garments, including hose, could be of one colour down one side and a different hue on the other, the dividing line thus delineating the form of the figure.
Counterchange designs—heraldic, floral, or geometric in motif—were introduced where the ground colour and design colour were interchanged. Edges of garments were cut into various shapes; these were called dagges Middle English: During the 15th century these trends developed further. Tunics were shorter, often only waist-length. Fabrics were richer and beautifully patterned. For older men, for whom displaying the figure was less suitable, a long gown was introduced to wear over the tunic.
At first in the 14th century it was full and long like a dressing gown the houppelande , but it gradually became more tailored and formal, with vertical pleats in back and front. All garments, for both sexes, were fur-edged and, often, fur-lined—for both warmth and appearance.
By the 15th century, styles, accessories, decoration, and fabrics were beginning to vary from area to area. The fashion-setter in the years —75 was Burgundy , a duchy that controlled Flanders and much of modern France.
It was the wealthiest region in Europe, and the fabrics it manufactured—velvets, silks, gold and silver materials, and embroideries—were of the highest quality. Italian fabrics were equally beautiful to those from Burgundy but were less heavy and with less fur.
Colours were gay and bright, and the emphasis for both sexes was on an elegant, natural human form with a gracious ease of movement. In general, they were short until the later 15th century, and men were mostly clean-shaven.
The main head covering was the hood with an attached shoulder cape and a long extended point, or tail, known as a liripipe. By the s a new way of wearing this hood was tried. This was an inconvenient arrangement and so a padded roll evolved—the roundlet —with the separate shoulder cape sewn in place to one side and the liripipe to the other. Toward the end of the century, various styles of tall or broad-brimmed hats, decorated by coloured plumes, replaced the hood.
Hair was still long, plaited, and coiled over the ears. These coils might be enclosed in metal mesh jeweled nets called cauls and were worn with a veil. In the 15th century turbans—a Byzantine style that had been introduced in Italy—were fashionable.
Wimples had also gained popularity, as did steeple headdresses resembling dunce caps and shorter fezlike caps. All were made of rich fabrics and accompanied by veils, either in a soft flowing mode or formed into winglike shapes by wire framework underneath. Footwear was similar for both men and women.
Hose might be soled for indoor wear. Outdoors shoes could be worn with wood and cork pattens strapped on to keep the elegant fabrics out of the mud of the streets. Men wore boots for traveling. Long toes were fashionable in the late 14th century, the ends being padded to keep the shape.
The 16th century witnessed further changes occurring in Europe. The limitations bounding medieval society were gradually being breached , and the concepts of the Renaissance were being accepted farther west, in France, Flanders, England, and Spain.
People expected a higher standard of living , and there was an expanding middle class. Europe was also looking outward. From Portugal, Spain, and Italy especially, sailors were voyaging to explore both east and west. Their journeys brought the acquisition of riches, new materials, and precious metals. Costume, as always, reflected all this. The chief centres of wealth were the pacesetters in fashion.
Until about the style was generated from Italy. After this the Germans and Flemish set the pattern, but from about mid-century it was Spain that dominated the scene. Styles of the first two decades were a development and expansion of the Italian modes of the late 15th century. Young men wore white silk shirts, frilled and embroidered at the neck and wrists. Over this they wore an abbreviated tunic and close-fitting hose, which were often striped to delineate the masculine limbs.
Older men covered the tunic and hose with a long gown, open down the centre front, the edges turned back to display the contrasting lining. Their hats, which were set at a jaunty angle, were made of black velvet and decorated with brooches and plumes. Sleeves were wide and full, and skirts were held or pinned up to display the undergown. From about to the fashionable shape was governed by the addition of padded puffs, decoratively slashed. This idea is thought to have been derived from the dress of Swiss and Bavarian mercenaries.
Each garment was slashed to show the contrasting colour of the material of the one beneath. Whereas the humanist concept of the Renaissance had led to figure display and elegance, the new modes were influenced by the Reformation of northern Europe, giving rise to darker colours, heavier materials, and bulky garments padded to conceal the figure.
The masculine tunic—now called a doublet —had a knee-length, gored skirt that was open in front to display the now padded protruberant codpiece. Over this was worn a rich velvet gown with fur collar and padded sleeves. Shoes and boots had broad toes and, like all other garments, were decoratively slashed. Short hair styles, small beards, and flat velvet caps worn at an angle were fashionable. The feminine figure was artificially controlled by a tight underbodice with metal or whalebone strips in the seams to give a small waist and slender torso.
This was the precursor of the corset. In contrast, the skirt was shaped into a cone or inverted-V silhouette by being draped over a petticoat made from canvas and inset at intervals with circular hoops of wicker.
This fashion had originated during the previous century in Spain, and by it had become high fashion there. The Spanish skirt, called a verdugado , was bell-shaped, however. About the cone-shaped hoop was introduced into France, where it was popularized by the queen and called a vertugade. The style soon appeared in England, where it was known as a farthingale.
The face was framed in front by a jeweled metal frame shaped like a pyramid the English hood or a horseshoe the French hood. Under this was worn a decorative cap that almost concealed the hair. The costume worn from mid-century until about was the richest ever seen in the history of European dress.
It was made from beautiful fabrics heavily encrusted with embroidery, pearls, and jewels. Fine lawns and lace were employed, and all garments were extensively patterned. During these years Spain was enjoying the wealth yielded by the New World, and Spanish dress—which was elegant and tasteful, formal and restrictive, and doubtlessly uncomfortable to wear—was paramount.
Paradoxically, when other nations adopted Spanish modes they mostly took them to excess, the Spaniards themselves remaining restrained in their dignified black garments.
The masculine doublet was fitted to the waist and buttoned centre front. Its skirt had now been replaced by trunk hose, which were loose mid-thigh-length breeches gathered into a tight waist and thigh bands; decoration was by embroidered strips called panes. Embroidered clocks decorated the now knitted silk stockings. Shoes had returned to the natural foot form. The dashing Spanish cape had replaced the cumbersome gown. These capes displayed great variety in size, shape, and method of wearing.
The farthingale became wider and, by the s, was extended by a padded sausage known as a bum roll or barrel, which was tied around the waist under the skirt. Later the French introduced the wheel farthingale, which was drum-shaped with radiating spokes on top.
From the s to the s a stomacher —a stiff, V- or U-shaped panel heavily decorated with jewels and embroidery—was often worn over the centre front bodice of the gown. A characteristic feature of dress of this time for both sexes was the ruff collar , introduced from Spain. Called a band ruffs laundered and ready to wear were kept in band boxes , it was a strip of material tied around the neck.
Another, ruched strip was sewn on to it. After , with the introduction of starch, ruffs became larger and were often edged with embroidery and lace. It was in the Netherlands , Germany, France, and England that the extremes of these fashions, which lasted until about , were seen.
By the s the Netherlands was emerging from Spanish control and extending its trade dramatically to become wealthy and influential. The garments worn by the well-to-do were still made from beautiful fabrics, but these now included fine wools as well as velvets and silks.
The material that above all was characteristic of these years was lace , seen especially in the falling bands—large collars covering the shoulders, which had replaced the 16th-century ruffs—and their elegant matching cuffs. Complementary to this coiffure was a large beaver, felt, or velvet hat, dramatically ornamented by coloured ostrich plumes.
The leather refers to the fact that the fashionable footwear was a boot rather than a shoe. These boots were made of soft leather; they had heels with platform soles and immense bucket tops, over the edge of which frothed lace-edged boot hose. The doublet had become an elegant hip-length jacket, and the trunk hose were replaced by knee-length breeches tied with a ribbon sash at the knee.
The hair was dressed high on the crown in a bun decorated with pearl ropes and with ringlets at the sides and brow. In this time the king established France as a great European power, and from about France became the unchallenged leader of European fashion, a position it held until and even later.
These breeches were known as petticoat breeches or rhinegraves. Between and came a quite different masculine style that presaged the three-piece suit of modern times. Initiated in France, this began as a knee-length coat called a justaucorps , an idea deriving from the Persian caftan. It had no collar and was worn open in front. The short sleeves ended in cuffs. By the sleeves were longer, and under the coat was worn a slightly shorter waistcoat together with close-fitting knee-breeches.
At the neck the falling band had been succeeded by an elegant, lace-edged cravat. The gown neckline was lowered, and the waistline was also lowered. Skirts were fuller and longer but were draped up on each side and fastened with ribbon bows to display the petticoat underneath. In the last decade of the century both sexes wore a high coiffure. In the case of the men it was a wig. The periwig or peruke had been fashionable since about It was made of naturally coloured hair—human where possible—and consisted of a great curtain of curls and ringlets cascading over shoulders and back, while above the brow the curls rose high on either side of the centre parting.
With these full-bottomed wigs the hat, now a three-cornered tricorne, was usually carried under the arm. Ladies wore a tall headdress —the fontange —consisting of tiers of wired lace decorated by ribbons and lappets.
Until the early s, French control of fashion was complete. It was in France where the trades and professions vital to fashion were established: Textiles for these crafts were varied and luxurious. They were beautiful but, unlike their 16th-century counterparts, were painted, embroidered, or printed with dainty rather than large-motif designs and were decorated not with jewels but with lace ruffles, ruching, and ribbon bows.
The Enlightenment caused fundamental changes in society during the 18th century. As capitalism and ideas of democracy burgeoned, so did the middle classes , which were increasing in numbers and influence. These developments lead to a wave of egalitarianism in dress and a gradual end to the idea that richness and high fashion were the prerogative of the aristocracy. Thus, during the 18th century men continued to dress elegantly, but changes in their costume style were gradual and limited.
There was a trend away from brightly coloured satins and velvets toward darker, more sombre cloth materials. The cut of the habit also became subdued; there was less decoration, and the style fitted the figure more closely. Wigs were worn through the s, in many and varied styles, but became smaller and less elaborate as time passed; powder was used for much of this time. The tricorne hat remained the style of this century.
A rigid corset continued to slenderize the waist and a framework petticoat to define the shape of the skirt. In the early decades this was a hoop skirt , circular in section and very full. A popular style of gown worn over this was the sack sacque , which had been derived from the informal house dress of the early years of the century.
In France this style was often called the robe volante. From a low, wide neckline the gown flared out freely over the hoop petticoat. By —25 the fullness was concentrated at the back in two deep box pleats sewn to the neckband, while the gown was waisted at the front. Toward mid-century the hoop framework gradually changed shape to become oval.
Soon the frame became so wide that women found it difficult to negotiate a doorway or a sedan chair , so a collapsible folding panier was devised, made only of whalebone hoops connected together by tapes. The years —75 saw the most elaborate and outrageously decorated panier gowns, a riot of ruffles, flounces, and ribbon bows.
It was also the time of ridiculously high, overdecorated, and powdered wigs. Cosmetics of all forms, many containing white lead , mercury, and other injurious chemicals, were copiously used, a reintroduction of the 16th-century practice. By the s a reaction to this excess was beginning in England, where simpler gowns with a framework petticoat were worn, and the fullness of the skirt was drawn to the back.
A sash encircled a high waistline, and a soft fichu, or light scarf, was draped around the neck. These gentler yet elegantly feminine styles gradually spread throughout Europe and were finally accepted in France, although a portrait of Marie-Antoinette in such a gown angered the public, who claimed that her use of muslin —a fabric not produced in France—undermined the French textile industry. For centuries children had been dressed as miniature adults, but in the s there was a marked divergence from this established custom.
Children, especially boys, began to be dressed in more comfortable garments suited to their age. This costume, in which the wearing of trousers as fashionable dress antedated its introduction for adults by a generation, was oddly entitled a skeleton suit.
North America was colonized by settlers from northern and western Europe. These settlers brought with them habits and ideas in dress that were characteristic of their places of origin, but their clothes were also influenced by the climate of the part of the country to which they had come. For example, the earliest settlers, the Spanish, arrived in Florida in There, as well as in their later settlements in Texas and California, the climate was not very different from that of Spain, so that the colonists continued to wear Spanish styles.
In contrast, colonists farther north in New England experienced harsher winters than they had been accustomed to and so found a greater need than they had in England to wear furs and skins. Many colonists thought it important to preserve class distinctions in all areas. Because of this, they passed many sumptuary laws that proscribed what members of the different classes could purchase or own; protocol in dress was a visible expression of their determination to maintain their heritage.
Similar laws restricting dress were also passed for religious reasons, reflecting some of the areas of conflict that led to the English Civil Wars — In America, as in England , plain dress and rich dress became, in effect, the respective symbols of the Puritan and the Cavalier , respectively. Many Virginia colonists leaned toward the Cavalier; Puritan ideas prevailed in Massachusetts. The Puritan penchant for simpler dress had begun before their departure for America. Having moved overseas, they continued to omit such extravagances as fine brocades, rich laces, ribbons, and feathers.
Probably the greatest change in clothing in America, as opposed to Europe , took place in the everyday working costume, with the Americans wearing heavier and warmer clothing made of stronger and stouter materials. Men and boys wore comfortable, durable jackets and breeches, for example, made from deerskin and buckskin tanned to the consistency of fine chamois with the use of animal brains, a process the colonists had learned from the Indians.
For many English colonists the early years were hard. Most people made their own clothes, cultivating flax and cotton and raising sheep for wool. Clothes for everyday wear were plainer versions of those worn back in England.
Best clothes were kept for Sundays and holidays; such garments lasted a long time, and most colonists were therefore wearing styles considered old-fashioned in England.
For example, men wore breeches full at the waist, a doublet and jerkin, and a hip-length, loose overgarment that had been fashionable in Europe in the later 16th century. This was the mandilion, derived from the medieval tabard. It was now a loose jacket with free-hanging sleeves. It had been adopted by the Puritans, whose version was generally lined with cotton and fastened with hooks and eyes. By mid-century the buff coat had also become a staple garment among colonists in New England.
Originally a military coat made of hide, it was durable and warm; it was cut simply in four sections, with or without sleeves. The everyday dress of women was a short gown of durable material, with a full skirt over a homespun petticoat, covered by a long apron of white linen.
The more stylish dress was longer and made of finer material. It often had the virago sleeve—full at elbow and shoulder and drawn in at intervals by strings of narrow ribbon—that appears in most 17th-century portraits of American women and children.
Stockings were either knitted or cut from woven cloth and sewn to fit the leg. Both men and women wore stout leather shoes with medium heels. Men also wore French falls, a buff leather boot with a high top wide enough to be crushed down.
After the jackboot, a shiny black leather boot large enough to pull over shoe or slipper, replaced the French falls; oxfords of black leather were worn by schoolchildren. Both men and women wore a steeple hat of felt or the more expensive beaver. Men also wore the montero cap, which had a flap that could be turned down, and the Monmouth cap, a kind of stocking cap.
Women of all ages wore a French hood, especially in winter, when it was made of heavy cloth or fur-lined; this hood , tied loosely under the chin, is seen in many portraits of the time.
Sometimes the steeple hat was worn on top of the hood. The settlers in these areas were industrious and tolerant, mixing harmoniously with colonists from other nations. They created a wealthy community but placed no restrictions on dress for sumptuary or religious reasons. Their attire was, as it had been in the Netherlands, of high quality and fashionable but not ostentatious.
French colonists, like the Dutch, were assisted by their home government with provisions and equipment to found settlements. Eastern Canada was one area of colonization, and another, which the French called Louisiana, was established on the lower reaches of the Mississippi River. Early French settlers made their own fabrics and clothes and bartered with indigenous peoples for animal skins and pelts, with beaver predominating in Canada and deer in Louisiana.
By Americans were dressing fashionably, and the distinctions between colonists of one nation and another were no longer very noticeable. Americans who were well-to-do followed the current fashions from Europe, and the main differences in attire were between city dwellers and those from rural areas. Many of the latter still made their own clothes from homespun and woven fabrics, but the former could afford to import luxury fabrics and follow the fashion trends.
Fashion dolls and costume plates now reached America, and it was possible to be au courant with the latest modes. In the first half of the 18th century, English colonists tended to follow English fashions, but the American Revolution altered this attitude. During the war there were severe restrictions on imported goods, and, when the war was over and independence had been won, most Americans did not return to buying their clothes from England; they went directly to the source of fashion—Paris.
From the early 12th century the Byzantine Empire had begun its slow decline in the face of the Turkish advance. In or the Ottoman Turks captured Bursa, on the opposite side of the Sea of Marmara from Constantinople , and this city became the first capital of the Ottoman Empire. In , Constantinople itself fell to the Turks. By then the fashions of each culture had been influencing one another for many years.
From the Turks had come the wearing of the caftan and trousers; the Byzantines contributed beautiful silks, jeweled embroideries, and cloth of gold.
The Turks adopted this richness of attire with such enthusiasm that, by the 16th century, sultans were trying to stem the tide of luxury in dress, as western Europe had long been attempting to do, by the passing of sumptuary laws forbidding the wearing of these materials and decoration except by the privileged few. From the 15th century until the modernization of Turkey soon after , the basic garments of the general population changed comparatively little.
Although a Europeanization movement had begun about the middle of the 19th century, this was a slow process, affecting mainly the dress of the upper strata of society and that of the urban population. For many years such attire was a blend of styles from western Europe worn together with traditional Ottoman garments. The trousers were of the very full, baggy type similar to the Middle Eastern chalvar , fitting tightly only on the lower leg.
The jacket was a short one, worn open, and was decoratively embroidered. In cold weather a caftan would be worn on top of these garments.
The only difference between the clothing worn by the average member of the population and those in a higher social class was that the garments of the latter would be made from richer, more decorative fabrics and that a long caftan would be worn on top.
Sometimes more than one such coat was worn, with or without sleeves. The traditional Turkish cap, the tarboosh , resembles an inverted flower pot and is made of cloth or felt. Similar to the fez, a term believed to have derived from the Moroccan town of that name, this cap was for centuries under the Ottoman Empire bound around the brow with a turban.
The cap was made part of the national dress of the Turks during the 19th century and remained so until it was proscribed when Turkey became a republic in It is still worn by Muslims of both sexes in the Middle East. The dress for women in the Ottoman Empire was very similar to that worn by Muslim women in the Middle East. Over these garments a waistcoat yelek and long gown anteri were worn.
Backless slippers were worn indoors. Outdoors the enveloping cloak tcharchaf and veil yashmak were obligatory, and decorative pattens kub-kobs kept the elegant slippers out of the mud of the streets.
The Ottoman Empire extended its control westward in Europe over the Balkans and as far as Hungary, where masculine dress was strongly influenced by Turkish styles.
Until well into the 18th century men in these non-Muslim areas wore the dolman over the mente both are styles of caftan , together with trousers, boots , and a fur-trimmed hat known as the kucsma. Dress for women in these areas, however, followed the current styles of western Europe. The influence of national features in dress had been declining since about and by had become negligible; from then on fashionable dress design was international. The character of the feminine wardrobe stemmed from Paris, the masculine from London.
The English gentleman was established as the best-dressed in Europe, the lead being set by elegants such as Beau Brummell , whose clothes were copied by the prince regent himself later King George IV.
Brummell was so concerned with fit that he had his coat made by one tailor, his waistcoat by another, and his breeches by a third.
It was during this period c. The tailcoat , waisted and padded on the chest, was de rigueur, accompanied by a waistcoat and close-fitting trousers called pantaloons, which were first buckled at the ankle and later, after , strapped under the instep.
Parisian designs of garments and accessories were publicized throughout Europe and America by fashion plates and journals. These fashions were supposedly based upon the Classical dress of ancient Greece. Ladies wore loose, draped, high-waisted gowns in white or pale colours in imitation of those depicted by white marble statuary. Corsets became less restrictive or were abandoned.
Hair was dressed in Classical fashion, usually in a chignon bound with ribbons. The Romantic age of the s brought back more colour, a tighter waistline at a more natural level, fuller skirts, leg-of-mutton sleeves, and complex high coiffures surmounted by large-brimmed hats or bonnets. The formal black tailcoat was now reserved for evening attire. For daywear, tailcoats of various types were worn with a waistcoat and the new looser style of trousers over boots. Neckwear was plainer, consisting of a collar with neck scarf.
The three-piece lounge suit, with a jacket instead of a tailcoat, was introduced in the s for informal occasions. In the last two decades of the century a more countrified attire consisting of Norfolk jacket and knickerbockers became popular.
The name was taken from the nom de plume Diedrich Knickerbocker , which was adopted by Washington Irving for the comic history of New York that he wrote in The increasing levels of informality extended to hat design, with new styles being introduced. The straw boater, originally meant to be worn on the river, became popular for all summer activities. The homburg felt hat, introduced in the s and popularized by the Prince of Wales later King Edward VII , stemmed from the German town of that name.
Between about and , long, bushy side-whiskers were fashionable. These whiskers, which left the chin clean-shaven, were called burnsides or sideburns , after the U. Civil War general Ambrose Burnside.
Other popular beard styles included the imperial, a small goatee named for Napoleon III , and the side-whiskers and drooping mustache known as the Franz Joseph in honour of the head of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
After men tended to be clean-shaven or to wear a mustache only. The second half of the 19th century was a time of prosperity in Europe. Despite wars and upheavals, the bourgeoisie dressed fashionably and luxuriously.
The technical advances and the capability for mass manufacturing that had been brought about by the Industrial Revolution were making fashionable dress available to a rapidly expanding public. The invention of the sewing machine and the jacquard loom used for weaving patterned textiles , the development of the ready-to-wear trade, the growth of new marketing techniques, and the establishment of department stores were revolutionizing the fashion scene.
In France, haute couture had taken over control of the fashion-design world. The Englishman Charles Frederick Worth , who had emigrated to Paris in , was the first of the great couturiers and one of the most influential.
He introduced the practice of preparing a collection of designs, and he was the first to use live models rather than mannequins to display designs to buyers. The fullness of the skirt was at first achieved by adding more layers of petticoats , leading to the crinoline petticoat of Named after the materials from which it was originally made Latin: By the weight of the petticoats became intolerable, and the cage crinoline was invented.
This was a flexible steel framework joined by tapes and having no covering fabric. Sold at two shillings and sixpence, it was immensely popular and worn by most classes of society, at least for Sunday dress. It became the target for cartoonists, who took full advantage of all possible ludicrous situations, but this in no way lessened its popularity. Only in the s did the skirt return to a relatively slender silhouette, but there was no letup in the constrictive corset, which was then at its most painful and harmful stage.
In general, the styles of the late 19th century were feminine and elegant but not easy to wear. They restricted natural movement with their multiple layers, extensive decoration, and sheer quantity of material.
Later styles were dressed high on top and in a chignon or ringlets behind. Not all the women of the s, however, wore these fashionable clothes. Followers of the Aesthetic movement in England wore looser garments with enormous sleeves supposed to resemble those worn by women in early Florentine paintings. The humorous journals of the period made great play with the contrast between fashionable and Aesthetic modes. An earlier attempt to introduce a more comfortable, practical attire for women had been made by the American Elizabeth Smith Miller.
Emperor, , ; last Emperor crowned by Pope, d. Such a blessing, such a relief from steadily more unendurable pressure, in spite of everything, is the appearance of an absolute commander for these herd-animal-Europeans , such as last dislayed in the grand manner by the rise of Napoleon. The history of Napoleon's effectiveness is almost the history of the higher happiness which this whole century attained in its most valuable men and moments.
All my reverses originated there. The Spanish war destroyed my reputation throughout Europe, increased my difficulties and provided the best possible training ground for English troops. I trained the English army myself, in the Peninsula.
Helena, quoted by Desmond Seward. New France Louisiana , Martinique present Guadaloupe present St. People who, like the present author, lived through the German occupation in Poland , later read French memoirs of the war years that seemed to describe a fairy-tale world.
The French during the war continued to attend theatres, published without inhibition books and journals censored by the Germans, and gave each other literary prizes; high schools and universities functioned.
Life was poorer, to be sure, but its continuity was not broken. Leszek Ko akowski , Is God Happy? Selected Essays , Basic Books, , p.
Piketty is a member of the ruling class. Piketty's way puts Piketty and his friends in charge of everything. There is a reason the most passionate foes of income inequality tend to be very affluent but not super rich, intellectuals like Paul Krugman and other journalists eager to set the threshold for confiscatory tax rates just beyond their own income levels But Internal Revenue Service records show that it was 63 percent in
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