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There is a lack of information about the correlates of completing all three cancer screening tests among women living in Appalachia.
Outcomes of within screening guidelines were verified by medical record. Multivariable logistic regression models identified correlates of being within guidelines for all three cancer screening tests. Regular contact with the healthcare system and higher incomes were significant predictors of being within guidelines. Within guidelines rates for the three recommended cancer screening tests is low among women in Appalachia Ohio.
This finding illustrates the need for innovative interventions to improve rates of multiple cancer screening tests. Compared to cancer rates among women living in the United States U. Reasons for cancer disparities among this underserved population are likely due to many social determinants of health included in the multilevel social determinants of health model This model includes proximal, intermediate, and distal factors that may affect and individual's health.
Examples of factors that may be especially relevant to the Appalachian population include lower socioeconomic status SES , lower educational levels, smoking, limited sources for healthcare, lack of health insurance, culture, communication issues, genetics, or a combination of these factors 7 , 12 , Many of these factors individually or collectively play a role in determining health behaviors.
Previous studies have suggested that some health behaviors are interrelated and tend to cluster. For example, there is evidence that individuals who complete a specific cancer screening test are more likely to complete other cancer screening tests e. In addition, studies have documented that individuals who are changing one health behavior may be trying to change multiple behaviors simultaneously e. Several common health behavior theories e.
Health Belief Model 24 , the Transtheoretical Model 25 , Social Cognitive Theory 26 have been used to explain the correlates of completing a singular cancer screening behavior 27 - 32 , and multiple behavior change interventions simultaneously or sequentially within a limited time frame may potentially be important public health strategies Currently, we have limited information about the frequency and correlates of being within recommended guidelines for multiple cancer screening tests among women and there is insufficient evidence about potential mechanisms for achieving this multiple behavior change The few studies that have reported on multiple cancer screening behaviors have suggested that common factors e.
More recently, a conceptual model for breast, cervical, and CRC screening has been proposed and focuses on multiple levels policy, system, facility, provider, and individual and individual-level steps including risk assessment, detection routine screening and follow-up testing , diagnosis, and treatment The focus of this study is to describe multiple cancer screening behaviors mammography for breast cancer, Pap test for cervical cancer, and fecal occult blood tests FOBT and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer CRC among women living in Appalachian Ohio.
This information may provide researchers valuable insight to plan future interventions to improve screening rates across multiple organ sites. A telephone survey was conducted April-September at the completion of a group randomized trial GRT designed to test a county-level intervention to improve CRC screening in 12 counties.
The design of the intervention and the GRT has been previously described 27 , At the completion of the study, there were no significant differences between the two arms of the study in CRC screening rates Therefore, the current report describes the cancer screening behaviors for breast, cervical and CRC among female participants living in all 12 Appalachia counties captured at the end of the study.
The study was approved by The Ohio State University Institutional Review Board and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participants were recruited from randomly selected households using commercially available lists of residents aged living in one of 12 Appalachian Ohio counties included in the study.
We used a proportional sampling scheme that reflected the county gender proportions from the Census because more males than females were represented on the lists Of the 2, Among the 1, Selected residents were mailed a packet containing a recruitment letter, consent form, and answer responses to be used during the telephone interviews.
Trained interviewers called the potential participants and assessed study eligibility. If eligible, the telephone interview was completed in approximately minutes.
A participant was sent a medical record review MRR form if they reported at least one cancer screening test completed within recommended guidelines The signed medical release forms were sent to the participants' healthcare providers to confirm self-reported dates of completed cancer screening tests. After a brief description of each cancer screening test Pap test, mammography, and CRC screening test: FOBT, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy , participants were asked if they completed each test.
If a participant reported completing a screening test, they were asked the date of their last screening test. If participants were unable to remember the test date, they were asked to approximate the date with a categorical response e. Participants were classified as being within recommended American Cancer Society screening guidelines 40 for: FOBT in the last year; flexible sigmoidoscopy in the last 5 years; or colonoscopy in the last 10 years. The information collected included: Self-rated health status was measured by a single item on a Likert scale [poor; fair; good; very good; excellent] Participants were also asked when they underwent a regular check-up [within the last year; between 1 and 2 years ago; more than 2 years ago; did not remember].
Participants' smoking status was determined using two items Each participant was asked: Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days, or not at all?
Participants were categorized as never smokers never smoked at least cigarettes , former smokers smoked at least cigarettes, but not currently smoking , and current smokers smoked at least cigarettes and smokes on some or every day.
An item was also included to assess patient-provider communication about all three cancer screening tests. For each test mammography, Pap test, and CRC tests: As previously mentioned, a review of the medical record was only conducted if a participant reported being within guidelines for one of the three cancer screening tests.
This decision was based on strong evidence that participants who reported not having a CRC screening test had no documentation of the test based on MRR Review of medical records was missing on In addition, there was missing information on 9. Fully conditional multiple imputation was used to impute screening test outcomes and income Multiple imputation provides unbiased estimates of covariate effects in regression models when the reason for missingness is related to the observed data, whereas an analysis of just the complete cases may result in substantial bias Four participants missing age or insurance status needed for the imputation model were omitted from analyses; leaving participants.
A total of 30 imputed datasets were created. A backward selection methodology was used to identify correlates of being within guidelines for all three tests. Next, the least significant variable was eliminated, and the process was repeated until only variables significant at the 0. Multiple degree of freedom tests were used to determine whether to retain the multilevel categorical variables of income and employment status.
All analyses were conducted using SAS v9. Demographic characteristics of the female participants are listed in Table 1. Participants had a mean age of The majority of women reported never being a smoker Percentage of women within cancer screening guidelines for all three cancer screening tests, for each test, and for no tests are shown in Figure 1.
The average percentage of women within guidelines across 30 imputed data sets was: Importantly, although almost a third of the women However, due to small cell counts, these predictors could not be included in the imputation model.
Residents of Appalachian Ohio continue to have increased cancer disparities that may partially be explained by the lower cancer screening rates within recommended guidelines.
This is one of the few studies to address multiple cancer screening tests among an underserved population 14 - 18 , and the first to report findings from a random sample of rural women for each cancer screening test and all three cancer screening tests verified by MRR.
The predictors of being within recommended guidelines for all three cancer screening tests in this study are similar to many studies focused on correlates of individual cancer screening test completion 27 - 29 , Our findings suggest that women within recommended guidelines for all three cancer screening tests were more likely to have had a provider recommendation for each screening test, had a regular check up in the past two years, had a medical condition that required regular medical visits, and had higher annual household incomes.
Although the findings in this study are consistent with other studies that have found lower cancer screening rates among Appalachian residents 2 , 16 , 27 , 29 , we found that only 8. This finding highlights the importance of medical record verification of cancer screening behaviors reported by study participants and is consistent with previous studies 39 , 46 - Our findings suggest that there is significant work that remains to improve cancer screening rates among this underserved population.
Even though the concept of multiple health behavior change may have benefits e. A few examples of potential challenges to intervening on multiple cancer screening tests include: The existence of a one-stop cancer screening program is rare and numerous questions remain about its potential effectiveness, practicality, and cost.
Co-variation is a phenomenon that fits with the one-stop shopping model There are three forms of co-variation that can occur when an effective action is taken on one treated behavior: For example, in a previous study evaluating a behavioral intervention study designed to increase mammography use, we found that women also increased Pap test completion An example of co-variation focused on screening barriers is if a patient navigator was successful in assisting an individual with transportation to complete one cancer screening test and then that individual is able to use the same transportation solution to complete a second cancer screening test.
Given that most women Such an integrative and innovative approach to cancer screening may be efficient and successful if the developed intervention focused on specific constructs within established behavioral theories For example, it is well recognized that self-efficacy is a critical construct in several health behavior theories and has been found to be crucial to changing several behaviors This study has limitations.
First, all participants had to have a working telephone to participate in the study. Although a higher rate was attempted by calling individuals multiple times, participation rates for national telephone surveys have also documented a downward trend in individuals' willingness to respond to survey research The participants also had to be age and average-risk for CRC to be enrolled in the intervention study.
Although this could not be avoided, we do not believe that it takes away from the findings of the current report. We were not able to determine if some women were not within screening guidelines for cervical cancer screening because of having had a hysterectomy, as this information was not collected. We were not able to determine common barriers for completing tests across organ sites since the main study was focused on CRC screening, and we did not collect information on barriers for mammography and Pap test completion.
We did not have permission to review medical records from all participants or data was missing from the medical records, thus we imputed missing data. Finally, the participants in this report resided in only 12 counties in Ohio Appalachia. Although these findings do not represent women living in all Appalachian counties, many demographic characteristics of the participants reflect the demographics of the entire Appalachian population.
In spite of limitations, this study included a population-based sample from an underserved population with documented cancer disparities.
In addition, we verified reported cancer screening behaviors by MRR. In addition to verifying all screening tests by MRR, future studies evaluating the uptake of cancer screening across multiple organ sites should include an objective risk assessment for each cancer, screening history for each test, motivation to complete each screening test, and a detailed measurement of barriers at different levels individual, provider, system for each screening test.
Eligibility included residing in an Appalachian county ARC, , being over 18 years of age, and having no prior history of CC. We selected a roughly equivalent number of women who were within CCS guidelines within the last 13 months or not within guidelines more than 36 months ago , which is consistent with risk-appropriate guidelines USPSTF, Table 3 summarizes the participants in the qualitative study. We recruited women from two sources.
First, we identified women from the CARE study, a larger study of Appalachian women recruited through primary care clinics Paskett et al. We randomly selected women from among those who were both within and not within guidelines. We then mailed eligible women a letter describing the study that included a self-addressed, stamped postcard. Those not wishing to participate could mail the postcard to the researcher.
Two weeks later, we telephoned individuals continuing in the study to schedule an interview. Second, we recruited participants from an Appalachian rural county health department clinic. In most cases, a nurse working in the clinic screened for participants, and the interviewer confirmed eligibility. Each interview began with administration of informed consent documents and was followed by a brief questionnaire including CC worry and religiosity.
These sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Participants completed surveys in 1—1. Consistent with the qualitative study, we measured self-system factors i. In addition, we asked participants open-ended questions: Demographic information, religious commitment and CC worry were summarized with descriptive statistics Table 2. In this approach, which is generally conducted upon completion of data collection, researchers go through a process of immersion delving into the data to understand its meaning and crystallization reflecting upon the overall content, trying to identify patterns.
Immersion is a very intense process where concentrated energy is focused on review of the data collected, often for days or weeks Borkan, Crystallization can be sought through a variety of means Borkan, , but for the purpose of this study, distancing taking time away from the data was used. Although some caution against utilizing pre-existing theory in qualitative research e. We used thematic coding to understand affective representations of CC in Appalachian women.
The SRM served as a tentative theoretical framework Leventhal et al. Although iterative refinement of probes and analysis continued throughout the course of the study, a more formal analysis of the transcripts occurred upon completion at the end of the study.
We developed codes and iteratively reviewed them for consistency. Codes were then examined in the context of the larger SRM for their thematic content, but codes and themes were not constrained by the SRM. We selected compelling, representative quotations for each code and theme. These were then reviewed in the larger interview and with background data as a check of the context from which the quote was taken.
We used a number of methods to enhance the transferability and rigor of the study Borkan, ; Merriam, The first author shared a preliminary draft of the analysis with the second and then other authors, who further refined the analysis i. In addition, a faithful reporting of participant responses through audio-recordings [i.
The linear regression Table 4 on the log-transformed cancer worry scale indicated two significant predictors of cancer worry: Higher comparative risk and greater distress were associated with greater cancer worry, such that a one unit increase on the comparative risk or distress scale was associated with a.
For example, this represents an increase of 1—1. Multiple regression results for cancer worry and three cervical cancer screening outcomes. In addition, a trend emerged, such that participants with higher level of interpersonal religious commitment were more likely to show higher likelihood of consistency between self-reported CCS and medical records [ OR 1. Three independent variables were significantly related to screening as defined by self-report augmented with medical-records; namely, inter-religious commitment, comparative risk, and cancer worry.
Both interpersonal religious commitment [ OR 0. Most women reported that they would be extremely upset and depressed if they were told they had CC. Two women discussed their experience of being diagnosed with dysplasia, which was extremely difficult because they were teenagers and all alone in new towns.
Some women tried not to think about CC and did not want to be told if they had it. Another reaction to a potential diagnosis was resignation to terminal cancer, particularly if treatments were unlikely to prolong life. One woman within CCS guidelines was even more positive:. I would wonder why. And we would go help people. And I would accept that, and be prepared to help people. So, although worry and fear were universal, some were able to imagine a potential benefit by helping others in similar circumstances.
The close knit communities pose problems for private matters, such as CCS. A number of women related particularly bad experiences, with one woman describing a physician that made crude sexual comments while giving her CCS when she was a young woman.
A problematic technique led one woman not only to discontinue CCS but also not to have children:. It made me not want to ever go back. It really took that child bearing issue right the hell out of my head… The doctor that gave me the CCS was not a doctor that had a good bedside manner.
He was heavy handed, and he hurt me. And therefore I chose never to go back. Beyond the unpleasant nature of the procedure, the CCS made some women feel victimized and vulnerable. Unfortunately, due to health care shortages in the Appalachia, some women felt they had no other alternatives for health care providers. Some women noted that CCS got easier with age, with repeated testing and finding the right physician. Her feelings of anonymity may have been greater than most women because she had lived outside of the Appalachian region for some time.
Some women noted that having an established relationship with their physicians and the coping procedures they used were helpful:.
This communication required a certain level of comfort with their physician, and some did not feel they could communicate with their physician. Overall, participants indicated only modest levels of cancer worry on our quantitative survey. The perception of being at higher risk of CC and having greater distress about cancer were associated with greater worry about cancer.
Selected largely from a county health department, socioeconomic status did not appear to play a role in this worry, but inclusion of a higher socioeconomic status sample may help to further elucidate this finding. As the risk of cancer decreases in the Appalachian population, worry may be decreased. In the meantime, interventions may be needed to decrease CC-related worry. Along with improving the mental health of the Appalachian community, such interventions may be helpful in improving cancer screening rates, as those with elevated worry were less likely to have had a CCS.
Thus, our study adds to those studies finding that worry inhibits screening behavior Hay et al. Although empirical data have been equivocal Kelly et al. As indicated in a previous paper, cancer risk perceptions are largely inaccurate Kelly et al. To further support this previous work, it is possible that women in Appalachia do not understand that their risk is increased Reiter et al.
Reflecting the transient nature of the county clinic population, self-report and medical record data were not consistent. Married women may have been more likely to benefit from health insurance or higher income, which may have enabled them to see a private physician, thus decreasing the accuracy of medical record reports. One rather surprising finding was the statistical trend for the role of interpersonal religious commitment in accuracy.
As religion features prominently in Appalachian culture, its role in self-report of CCS is important. Those with higher interpersonal religious commitment manifested more consistency between self-report and medical record report of screening, but this finding was likely fueled by their lower level of CCS overall.
Appalachians tend to be publicly demonstrative of their religion Leonard, ; Worthington et al. Our finding that those with higher interpersonal religious commitment were less likely to be screened and thus have greater consistency between self-report and medical record report may reflect an underlying social impression management.
Appalachian women may not want to be seen having CCS. It is also possible that these women were not sexually active or may have received CCS elsewhere.
Future research may clarify the role of interpersonal religious commitment and impression management on CCS. Consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component. Many women had first-hand experience—either through their own experiences of cervical dysplasia or through CC in close relations—of the physical consequences of CC.
These experiences were difficult emotionally, and many women did not feel that they had adequate support to manage them, a particular concern in an area with an elevated morbidity and mortality related to CC.
In addition to those who had experienced dysplasia, all women believed that fear and avoidance would likely be their response to a CC diagnosis. Thus, the earlier quantitative assessment of cancer worry belies their descriptions of fear and worry in qualitative interviews, and additional research is needed to understand this seemingly contradictory finding. In contrast to other studies Holroyd et al. The SRM provides less detail about the features of the health behavior i.
Rather, interventions with the SRM typically rely on creating fear of the disease that can surmount any concerns about procedures Leventhal et al. Some concerns might be more easily overcome. For example, patients gave details about the aspects of the CCS that they found problematic, mostly focusing on procedural aspects that challenged modesty norms, such as observation by others in the room, as well as the lack of anonymity, reflecting the challenges of living in close-knit communities.
However, some interviews revealed more troublesome behaviors on the part of physicians such as inappropriate comments and unnecessarily harsh techniques.
Due to a lack of available physicians in rural regions, some participants also felt that their only alternative to avoid such treatment was to stop having screening. Other participants indicated that physician behaviors had improved the experience, such as telling patients the progress of the procedure and helping them to relax, and having a longer-term, trusting relationship with their health provider helped.
These behaviors may suggest methods for intervention to improve the experience of CCS. Indeed, the SRM indicates that having a clear action plan can help to facilitate screening Leventhal et al. We note several limitations to the current study. First, the cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow for causal inferences; thus we cannot conclude that worry causes lower screening rates. Third, this study draws largely on a select clinic-based sample, and thus our data may not be reflective of women in the clinic or the larger community who do not seek health care.
In addition, this study has a relatively small sample size, which may have been responsible for our wide confidence intervals. Although less frequently reported in quantitative surveys, Appalachian women reported worry and fear about CC in their qualitative interviews, perhaps indicating a discrepancy in the two methods. Further, worry resulted in lower levels of CCS. Those who had higher perceptions of risk were more likely to be screened, as were those with lower interpersonal religious commitment.
Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about CC and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. We would also like to acknowledge Victoria White, M. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1.
Kelly , Nancy Schoenberg , Tomorrow D. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Prim Prev.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening CCS behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region.
Cervical cancer, Cancer screening, Appalachia, Psychosocial impact. Introduction Appalachia is a mountainous, geopolitically-designated region, including 13 states from New York to Mississippi, along the eastern coast of the United States [ Appalachian Regional Commission ARC , ].
Methods To better understand cancer worry in Appalachian women, our study comprised both quantitative and qualitative components. Quantitative Study We sought to assess the association of negative affect and CCS by quantifying their relationship, using the SRM to explore self-system factors associated with cancer worry Fig.
Open in a separate window. Participants We recruited women 18 years of age and older through a central Appalachian rural county health department clinic. Procedure The study proceeded with institutional review board approval.
Measures We assessed self-system factors including age, education, race, household income, marital status, type of insurance, and length of residence in Appalachian county.
Self-report Versus Medical Record Review of Cervical Cancer Screening Despite the importance of accurate measurement of CCS, the best source of screening behavior data remains unclear, and findings vary in part due to type of data collected i. Data Analysis We computed relevant scales as well as descriptive statistics to describe the data and determine the appropriateness of parametric tests Table 1.
Table 2 A comparison of the number of cervical cancer screeners in self-reported pap utilization versus medical record. Qualitative Study This study expanded upon the findings in the quantitative study to explore the role for affect in CC and CCS behavior in lower income Appalachian women.
Procedures We recruited women from two sources. Measures Consistent with the qualitative study, we measured self-system factors i. Data Analysis Demographic information, religious commitment and CC worry were summarized with descriptive statistics Table 2.
Table 4 Multiple regression results for cancer worry and three cervical cancer screening outcomes. RCI interpersonal religious commitment 0. Qualitative Study Cervical Cancer: Affective Representation Most women reported that they would be extremely upset and depressed if they were told they had CC. One woman within CCS guidelines was even more positive: Experience of Cervical Cancer Screening: Modesty can be even more challenging in small communities such as those in Appalachia: A problematic technique led one woman not only to discontinue CCS but also not to have children: Facilitators Some women noted that CCS got easier with age, with repeated testing and finding the right physician.
Some women noted that having an established relationship with their physicians and the coping procedures they used were helpful: Conclusion Although less frequently reported in quantitative surveys, Appalachian women reported worry and fear about CC in their qualitative interviews, perhaps indicating a discrepancy in the two methods. Footnotes Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Contributor Information Kimberly M.
References Ackerson K, Gretebeck K. Factors influencing cancer screening practices of underserved women. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Azaiza F, Cohen M. Between traditional and modern perceptions of breast and cervical cancer screenings: A qualitative study of Arab women in Israel. The health belief model and personal health behavior. Behringer B, Friedell GH. Where place matters in health. Since women with physician recommendation, higher incomes, or who had a medical condition that required regular medical visits were more likely to be within recommended guidelines for all three cancer screening tests, improving access and utilization of healthcare, and improving physician-patient communication about cancer screening are important strategies to focus on to increase cancer screening rates and reduce cancer disparities among this population.
The authors would like to acknowledge support from the following grants: National Institutes of Health: Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest: There are no conflicts of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Katz , a, b, c Paul L. Reiter , a, b, c Gregory S. Young , d Michael L. Pennell , a, b Cathy M. Tatum , b and Electra D. Paskett a, b, c. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available free at Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Background There is a lack of information about the correlates of completing all three cancer screening tests among women living in Appalachia.
Results Screening rates were: Impact Within guidelines rates for the three recommended cancer screening tests is low among women in Appalachia Ohio. Introduction Compared to cancer rates among women living in the United States U. Materials and Methods A telephone survey was conducted April-September at the completion of a group randomized trial GRT designed to test a county-level intervention to improve CRC screening in 12 counties.
Participants Participants were recruited from randomly selected households using commercially available lists of residents aged living in one of 12 Appalachian Ohio counties included in the study. Measures Outcomes After a brief description of each cancer screening test Pap test, mammography, and CRC screening test: Demographic Characteristics The information collected included: General Health and Healthcare Utilization Self-rated health status was measured by a single item on a Likert scale [poor; fair; good; very good; excellent] Smoking Behavior Participants' smoking status was determined using two items Patient-Provider Cancer Screening Communication An item was also included to assess patient-provider communication about all three cancer screening tests.
Data Analysis As previously mentioned, a review of the medical record was only conducted if a participant reported being within guidelines for one of the three cancer screening tests. Results Study participants Demographic characteristics of the female participants are listed in Table 1. At least some college Yes Private Yes Never smoker Yes Open in a separate window.
Cancer screening Percentage of women within cancer screening guidelines for all three cancer screening tests, for each test, and for no tests are shown in Figure 1.
Cancer screening behaviors by self-report and medical record review MRR; average across imputed datasets among female participants. However, these variables could not be included in the imputation model due to small cell counts multivariable model omits these predictors. Discussion Residents of Appalachian Ohio continue to have increased cancer disparities that may partially be explained by the lower cancer screening rates within recommended guidelines.
Footnotes Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest: Breast and cervical carcinoma mortality among women in the Appalachian region of the U.
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