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Join Us on Facebook! Signed by Colonel Louis Schley commanding. The place of residence and number of dependants was listed by soldier with the city of Baltimore and County being residences. Overall very good, usual seam fissures seen on these large musters archivally repaired.

Duty there and at Suffolk, VA, to September Moved to Washington, D. Battle of Antietam, September 16 - Moved to Harpers Ferry September 22 and duty there until June Moved to Winchester, VA, June 2. Battle of Winchester June 13 - 15, where the regiment was mostly captured. Ordered to join the Army of the Potomac in the field June 4, Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30, reserve. Duty in trenches before Petersburg until September Battle of Fair Oaks October 27 - Duty in trenches before Richmond until April Occupation of Richmond April 3.

Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Duty in the Department of Virginia until September. Listing of 47 officers and enlisted men with several causalities at the Battle of Antietam. Signed by Colonel Louis Schley. One listed as missing at Antietam with the entry "mother of this man lost another son August 7th, These two sons were her sole support.

Residences in Baltimore County and dependents listed for each man. Duty there and at Suffolk, VA. Reconnaissance to Charleston October 16 - Moved to Winchester, VA. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond, VA. Mine Explosions, Petersburg, July 30, reverse. Overall very good, some usual archival repairs at some seams as often seen on these large muster rolls.

Attractive City of Baltimore letterhead. Ordered to North Carolina March. Duty at Roanoke Island, N. Expedition toward Trenton May 15 - Skirmish at Young's Cross Roads May Expedition to New Berne June 18 - July 2. Moved to Newport News, VA. Battles of Groveton August Bull Run August Maryland Campaign September 6 - Battles of South Mountain, MD.

Antietam September 16 - Stone Bridge September Duty in Pleasant Valley until October Movement to Falmouth, VA. Battle of Fredericksburg, VA. Burnside's 2nd Campaign "Mud March" January 20 - 24, Duty at Frankfort, KY. Rejoined Corps September March to Knoxville, TN. Action at Blue Springs October Operations in East Tennessee until November Knoxville Campaign November 4 - December Campbell's Station November Siege of Knoxville November 17 - December 4.

Repulse of Longstreet's assault on Fort Saunders November Pursuit of Longstreet December 5 - Duty in East Tennessee until March, Moved to Annapolis, MD. Battles of the Wilderness May 5 - 7. Spotsylvania May 8 - Po River May Spotsylvania Court House May 12 - Assault on the Salient May North Anna River May 23 - ON line of the Pamunkey May 26 - Totopotomoy May 28 - Cold Harbor June 1 - Bethesda Church June 1 - 3.

Before Petersburg June 16 - Siege of Petersburg June 16, Weldon Railroad August 18 - Poplar Springs Church, September 29 - October 2. Fort Steadman March 25, Appomattox Campaign March 28 - April 9. Assault on and fall of Petersburg April 2. March to Farmville April 4 - Grand Review May Duty in the Department of Washington until July. Mustered out July 7, Both documents tacked together, [easily separated if desired], scarce imprint His wife and children are entitled to support from the State of Maryland Under Act passed by the Maryland Legislature passed March dated April 22nd, This form served as an affidavit to her being entitled to this benefit.

Attractive seal of Maryland letterhead. He survived the war and was later transferred to Company I. Maryland Campaign September 6 Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May 4 - June On line of the Pamunkey May 26 - Poplar Springs Church September 29 - October 2.

In units of the Maryland Militia participated in the suppression of John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, an abortive attempt to ignite a slave rebellion. Major General George H. Steuart personally led six companies of Militia: The departing Baltimore militia was cheered on by substantial crowds of citizens and well-wishers.

After Harper's Ferry, militias in the South began to grow in importance as Southerners began to fear slave rebellion inspired by Northern Abolitionists.

Kirby was killed September 7th, at the Battle of Antietam. We have purchased a small group of these which are dated in mid September The Militia Act of forced states that did not fill their quota of volunteers to draft men to fill the quota. These are the first of their type we have had over the years.

All signed by Surgeon J.

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Biden ran for the Democratic nomination for president in , and on the national ticket as eventual nominee Barack Obama's running-mate. Biden had thought about running for president again ever since his failed bid. Biden declared his candidacy for president on January 31, , after having discussed running for months prior, [] and first made a formal announcement to Tim Russert on Meet the Press on January 7, stating he would "be the best Biden I can be.

Themal wrote that Biden "occupies the sensible center of the Democratic Party. During his campaign, Biden focused on the war in Iraq and his support for the implementation of the Biden-Gelb plan to achieve political success. He touted his record in the Senate as the head of major congressional committees and his experience on foreign policy. Despite speculation to the contrary, [] Biden rejected the notion of accepting the position of Secretary of State, focusing only on the presidency.

At a campaign event, Biden said, "I know a lot of my opponents out there say I'd be a great Secretary of State. Seriously, every one of them. Do you watch any of the debates? The presidency is not something that lends itself to on-the-job training. Biden made remarks during the campaign that attracted controversy. On the day of his January announcement, he spoke of fellow Democratic candidate and Senator Barack Obama: In Delaware, the largest growth in population is Indian-Americans moving from India.

You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin' Donuts unless you have a slight Indian accent. Overall, Biden had difficulty raising funds, struggled to draw people to his rallies , and failed to gain traction against the high-profile candidacies of Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton ; [] he never rose above single digits in the national polls of the Democratic candidates.

In the initial contest on January 3, , Biden placed fifth in the Iowa caucuses , garnering slightly less than one percent of the state delegates. I feel no regret. Despite the lack of success, Biden's stature in the political world rose as the result of his campaign. Although the two had served together on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee , they had not been close, with Biden having resented Obama's quick rise to political stardom, [] [] and Obama having viewed Biden as garrulous and patronizing.

Since shortly following Biden's withdrawal from the presidential race, Obama had been privately telling Biden that he was interested in finding an important place for him in a possible Obama administration. After his selection as a vice presidential candidate, Biden was criticized by his own Roman Catholic Diocese of Wilmington Bishop Michael Saltarelli for not opposing abortion.

Biden's vice presidential campaigning gained little media visibility, as far greater press attention was focused on the Republican running mate, Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin.

It literally saddens me. On October 2, , Biden participated in the campaign's one vice presidential debate with Palin. Post-debate polls found that while Palin exceeded many voters' expectations, Biden had won the debate overall. Under instructions from the Obama campaign, Biden kept his speeches succinct and tried to avoid off-hand remarks, such as one about Obama's being tested by a foreign power soon after taking office, which had attracted negative attention.

Biden had continued to run for his Senate seat as well as for Vice President, [] as permitted by Delaware law. As the presidential transition of Barack Obama began, Biden said he was in daily meetings with Obama and that McCain was still his friend.

Secret Service codename given to Biden is "Celtic", referencing his Irish roots. Biden chose veteran Democratic lawyer and aide Ron Klain to be his chief of staff, [] and Time Washington bureau chief Jay Carney to be his director of communications. In the early months of the Obama administration , Biden assumed the role of an important behind-the-scenes counselor.

Biden made visits to Iraq about once every two months, [] including trips to Baghdad in August and September to listen to Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and reiterate U.

Biden was also in charge of the oversight role for infrastructure spending from the Obama stimulus package intended to help counteract the ongoing recession , and stressed that only worthy projects should get funding.

It took some time for the cautious Obama and the blunt, rambling Biden to work out ways of dealing with each other. Vice President, you're right We wouldn't change him one bit. He's someone you can't help but like. Biden's most important role within the administration was to question assumptions, playing a contrarian role. Biden campaigned heavily for Democrats in the midterm elections , maintaining an attitude of optimism in the face of general predictions of large-scale losses for the party.

In March , Obama detailed Biden to lead negotiations between both houses of Congress and the White House in resolving federal spending levels for the rest of the year and avoid a government shutdown. He was a key to the deal. In October , Biden stated that Obama had asked him to remain as his running mate for the presidential election. Daley conducted some secret polling and focus group research into the idea of Secretary of State Clinton replacing Biden on the ticket. Biden's May statement that he was "absolutely comfortable" with same-sex marriage gained considerable public attention in comparison to President Obama's position, which had been described as "evolving".

The Obama campaign nevertheless still valued Biden as a retail-level politician who could connect with disaffected, blue collar workers and rural residents, and he had a heavy schedule of appearances in swing states as the Obama re-election campaign began in earnest in spring But during any Biden speech, there might be a dozen moments to make press handlers cringe, and prompt reporters to turn to each other with amusement and confusion. Biden was officially nominated for a second term as vice president on September 6 by voice vote at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina.

There he made a feisty, emotional defense of the Obama administration's record and energetically attacked the Republican ticket, in an effort to regain campaign momentum lost by Obama's unfocused debate performance against Republican nominee Mitt Romney the week before.

On November 6, , the president and vice president were elected to second terms. Biden was inaugurated to a second term in the early morning of January 20, , at a small ceremony in his official residence with Justice Sonia Sotomayor presiding a public ceremony took place on January During the discussions that led to the October passage of the Continuing Appropriations Act, , which resolved the U.

This was due to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and other Democratic leaders cutting the vice president out of any direct talks with Congress, feeling that Biden had given too much away during previous negotiations. Biden's Violence Against Women Act was reauthorized again in Your bravery is breathtaking. Biden issued federal guidelines while presenting a speech at the University of New Hampshire. He stated that, "No means no, if you're drunk or you're sober. No means no if you're in bed, in a dorm or on the street.

No means no even if you said yes at first and you changed your mind. As Iraq fell apart during , renewed attention was paid to the Biden-Gelb Iraqi federalization plan of , with some observers suggesting that Biden had been right all along. By , a series of swearings-in and other events where Biden placed his hands on women and girls and talked closely to them had attracted the attention of both the press and social media. A vehicle was observed by an agent leaving the scene at a high rate of speed.

During his two full terms, Joe Biden never cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate , making him the longest serving Vice President with this distinction. On May 30, , Biden's son Beau died of brain cancer at age 46, after battling it for several years. The nature and seriousness of the illness had not been previously disclosed to the public, and Biden had quietly reduced his public schedule in order to spend more time with his son, who at the time of his death had been widely seen as the frontrunner to be the Democratic nominee for Governor of Delaware in During much of his second term, Biden was said to be preparing for a possible bid for the Democratic presidential nomination.

Biden cited the recent death of his son being a large drain on his emotional energy, and that "nobody has a right On October 21, speaking from a podium in the Rose Garden with his wife and President Obama by his side, Biden announced his decision not to enter the race for the Democratic presidential nomination in the election.

As of the end of January , neither Biden nor President Barack Obama had endorsed any candidate for the presidential election. Biden did miss his annual Thanksgiving tradition of going to Nantucket , opting instead to travel abroad and meet with several European leaders, and took time to meet with Martin O'Malley , having previously met with Bernie Sanders.

Neither of these meetings were considered endorsements, as Biden has said that he will meet with any candidate who asks. Following Obama's endorsement of Hillary Clinton on June 9, , Biden also endorsed her later the same day. Following his endorsement of Clinton, Biden publicly displayed his disagreements with the policies of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump. On June 20, Biden critiqued Trump's proposal to temporarily ban Muslims from entering the country as well as his stated intent to build a wall between the United States and Mexico border, furthering that Trump's suggestion to either torture and or kill family members of terrorists was both damaging to American values and "deeply damaging to our security.

During a tour of the U. Senate with reporters before leaving office, on December 5, , Biden refused to rule out a potential bid for the Presidency in the presidential election , after leaving office as Vice President. If he were to run in , Biden would be 77 years old on election day and 78 on inauguration day in In , he was named the Benjamin Franklin Presidential Practice professor at the University of Pennsylvania , where he will focus on foreign policy, diplomacy, and national security while leading the Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement.

During a Las Vegas, Nevada hedge fund conference interview on May 18, Biden said that he had never been confident in Clinton's candidacy: I thought I was a great candidate.

Biden delivered a speech to the graduating class of Colby College on May 21, , calling for a return to "unity and purpose", [] and three days later expressed confidence in contemporary students being able to handle "the challenges that lie ahead" at Harvard University during the college's Class Day ceremony.

While attending the launch of the Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement on March 30, , a student asked Biden what "piece of advice" he would give to President Trump, Biden responding that the president should grow up and cease his tweeting so he could focus on the office. Murphy supporters at a community center gymnasium, "There are a lot of people out there who are frightened. Trump played on their fears. What we haven't done, in my view — and this is a criticism of all us — we haven't spoken enough to the fears and aspirations of the people we come from.

During an appearance at the Brainstorm Health Conference in San Diego, California on May 2, , Biden said the public "has moved ahead of the administration [on science]. On March 22, , Biden referred to the Republican healthcare bill as a "tax bill" meant to transfer nearly 1 trillion USD used for health benefits for the lower classes to wealthy Americans during his first appearance on Capitol Hill since Trump's inauguration.

On September 5, , after Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that the Trump Administration is rescinding the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals , Biden tweeted, "Brought by parents, these children had no choice in coming here.

Now they'll be sent to countries they've never known. On April 14, , Biden released a statement both denouncing Chechnya authorities for their rounding up, torturing, and murdering of "individuals who are believed to be gay" and stating his hope that the Trump administration honor a prior pledge to advance human rights by confronting Russian leaders over "these egregious violations of human rights.

Biden has often been mentioned by media outlets as a potential candidate for the Democratic nomination to run against incumbent Donald Trump. He told a forum held in Bogota, Colombia , on July 17, , that he would decide whether or not to formally declare as a candidate by January Biden has supported deficit spending on fiscal stimulus in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of ; [] [] the increased infrastructure spending proposed by the Obama administration; [] mass transit , including Amtrak , bus, and subway subsidies; [] same-sex marriage ; [] and the reduced military spending proposed in the Obama Administration's fiscal year budget.

For —, Biden's average ratings were as follows: Various advocacy groups have given Biden scores or grades as to how well his votes align with the positions of each group. The American Civil Liberties Union gives him an 80 percent lifetime score, [] with a 91 percent score for the th Congress. D [] University of Pennsylvania LL. D [] Colby College LL. Biden also received the Chancellor Medal from his alma mater, Syracuse University , in , [] and in , he received the George Arents Pioneer Medal—Syracuse's highest alumni award [] —"for excellence in public affairs.

In , Biden received the Best of Congress Award, for "improving the American quality of life through family-friendly work policies," from Working Mother magazine. On January 12, , Obama surprised Biden by awarding him the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction during a farewell press conference at the White House honoring Biden and his wife.

Obama said he was awarding the Medal of Freedom to Biden for "faith in your fellow Americans, for your love of country and a lifetime of service that will endure through the generations.

Senators are popularly elected and take office January 3 for a six-year term except when appointed to fill existing vacancies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ashley Biden. For other uses, see Biden disambiguation. Joe Biden presidential campaign, Barack Obama presidential campaign, and Democratic Party vice presidential candidates, Barack Obama presidential campaign, Political positions of Joe Biden.

Electoral history of Joe Biden. A Year of Hope, Hardship, and Purpose. Archived from the original PDF on March 5, Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.

Strategies for Homeland Defense: Threat of Bioterrorism and the Spread of Infectious Diseases: Political Future of Afghanistan: International Campaign Against Terrorism: Future Efforts in the U. Hearings before the Comm. Homeland Security Law and Policy. The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, Retrieved February 8, Retrieved December 6, Archived from the original on February 2, Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved January 21, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved September 7, Joe Biden's life and career".

Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved September 6, Retrieved September 13, The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on September 19, Why Biden's plagiarism shouldn't be forgotten" , Slate August 25, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Retrieved August 19, Retrieved September 17, Archived from the original PDF on July 28, Retrieved December 9, Orator for the Next Generation". Retrieved February 4, Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved September 12, The Biden Car Crash". Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved May 28, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved January 8, Retrieved August 25, Historical Statistics, , Volume 4 , p. Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on August 28, The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved August 23, Retrieved January 3, Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved June 1, Retrieved November 9, Retrieved January 27, Retrieved November 5, In Nelson, Michael ed. The Elections of An Echo From Abroad". Retrieved October 3, The Election of Retrieved October 26, Retrieved October 25, The Bork Hearings; For Biden: Epoch of Belief, Epoch of Incredulity". A Silent Justice Speaks Out: Becoming a Judge — and perhaps a Justice".

Retrieved October 18, Men who don't stop violence against women are "cowards " ". Archived from the original on October 13, Morrison , U. Retrieved August 24, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 9, Archived from the original on April 30, National Domestic Violence Hotline.

Archived from the original on July 5, Retrieved February 7, Archived from the original on December 23, Stormy weather on the way to enlargement? Retrieved August 29, Biden's Been There, Done That". Archived from the original on July 12, Retrieved November 26, Even before Obama announced his run for president, Biden was warning that Afghanistan, not Iraq, was the "central front" in the war against Al Qaeda, requiring a major U.

The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved September 2, Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved March 16, Retrieved July 27, United States Senate for Thomas R.

Retrieved July 10, Retrieved November 2, Widener University School of Law. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved September 24, Archived from the original on January 5, Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved September 25, Delaware County Daily and Sunday Times.

Retrieved September 18, Retrieved August 26, Biden adds experience, yes, but he could also help with Catholics, blue-collar whites and women" fee required. Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved September 21, Retrieved September 20, Retrieved December 2, Biden not running for president".

Archived from the original on July 24, The New York Observer. Archived from the original on July 2, Lays Into Clinton, Obama, Edwards". Stephey December 9, Retrieved August 20, New Hampshire Union Leader. Retrieved February 1, Joseph Biden D ". Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved September 16, Retrieved November 24, I'd say yes to being VP".

How Joe Biden will reassure working class voters and change the tenor of this week's convention". Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved October 29, Retrieved September 10, Retrieved October 2, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved October 5, Retrieved August 7, Archived from the original on September 15, Retrieved September 15, Archived from the original on August 3, Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved October 31, Reining In a Voluble No.

Retrieved November 1, Retrieved November 3, Retrieved November 19, Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved January 25, Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved November 6, Retrieved November 17, Retrieved November 13, Carney joins Biden team". Retrieved December 15, Retrieved December 23, Retrieved December 22, Retrieved January 9, Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 8, Retrieved March 31, Retrieved June 23, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved July 8, Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved March 19, Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved July 9, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved March 23, Retrieved September 14, He had begun work as a roundhouse laborer in in Terre Haute , Indiana , at the age of fifteen.

His pay was fifty cents a day for cleaning the grease from freight locomotives after their regular runs. He had to buy his own scraper to loosen the grease, but the company provided the borax. His knuckles were always raw and bleeding. A half dozen unsuccessful railroad strikes, called by unions to keep wages from being slashed when profits, for one reason or another, dipped, convinced Debs there is little chance of winning any concessions from railroad owners so long as workers were organized in individual unions according to their crafts.

A union striking without support of the other unions on the same railroad was bound to lose. And it was not at all unusual that when one called a strike, the others would act as strikebreakers. In , the union Debs organized - the American Railway Union - came into existence. It was a revolutionary new type of a labor organization and was immediately attacked from every quarter - industry, the newspapers, railroad owners, mining interests, and, not too surprisingly, by the officers of the American Federation of Labor.

Every railroad worker, no matter what his craft was, could join the One Big Union. And despite opposition from every quarter, the new union was an immediate success.

By the middle of December, only six months after it was organized, when Debs appeared in Wadsworth , a sizeable part of the railroad industry west of Chicago was organized into the American Railway Union. The rush to join was a stampede. To the railroad workers it meant that in the event of a strike there would be no strikebreaking by one group of workers against another.

The entire railroad network would be tied up. The railroad strike, the most violent in labor history - "the Debs Revolution", it was called, began under these circumstances: The builders of Pullman sleeping cars would not budge in their refusal to talk with their workers, who had gone out on strike because their wages were slashed by the usual practice of simply posting a notice.

The Debs union ordered members on all railroads to refuse to couple and uncouple sleeping cars to passenger trains. The railroads complained their contracts with the Pullman Company barred them from running passenger trains without sleeping cars. The federal government declared the mail must move, no matter what is involved, and called out troops to see that trains moved. In Wadsworth , eight-year-old Louise Bryant knew nothing of this at that time. She sat on a three-legged stool in the kitchen, watching her mother trying to pacify the baby, and listening to Sheridan read the strike news in the Wadsworth Dispatch and the Reno Gazette and the Nevada Journal.

She had never before heard phrases like; "court injunctions," "propaganda leaflets," "shoot to kill orders," "dynamite on train trestles," "six soldiers drowned," "strike- breakers beaten.

Not even a dog fight to disturb anybody. But it was a strange, eerie, quiet - particularly in the railroad yards a short distance from their back porch. Ever since they came to Wadsworth , there had never been a moment when Louise couldn't hear the clatter and clanging and shouting of railroad crews, coupling and uncoupling freight and passenger cars, and the puffing and whistling and racket of switching, called "goats.

Then one night the quiet ended. Louise was awakened by a terrible explosion and shouting and screaming, and through the window of her bedroom she saw the fire from the roundhouse.

Outside were all the neighbors on their back porches looking in the direction of the roundhouse fire. Strikebreakers had been brought to Wadsworth , guarded by troops that afternoon, and the railroad superintendent was determined to reopen the shops and the roundhouse in the morning and get the locomotives back into service. At night, the strikers mostly shop and car repair workers had managed to get into the roundhouse and the shops despite the guards.

They smashed machinery, disconnected pistons from locomotive cylinders, tore off brake shoes and created all kinds of other havoc.

Then someone threw a lighted match into one of the kerosene barrels, and as the strikers fled, they were fired on by the guards. In the morning Louise heard about the men who were beaten and shot at, and hauled off to a stockade that had been put up on the school grounds.

Then it was over. It began on June 26, and by July 15 everything was back to normal, with all trains running on time. Court injunctions, federal troops and state militia, along with strikebreaking craft union members smashed the boycott. Every member of Debs' American Railway Union was jobless and none was back to work until he could demonstrate he was not involved in violence or sabotage.

Debs, himself, served a six-month jail term for contemptuously tearing up a court injunction, and in while in prison for opposing World War One, ran for President of the United States, collecting almost a million votes. As for his revolutionary plan for organizing workers along industry-wide lines instead of craft unions, it followed the pattern of all significant new ideas considered outlandish, preposterous, anarchic, a threat to civilization itself, when first proposed.

Upon accumulating enough myths and traditions of their own - they are accepted. Thus Debs' industrial union idea became the Congress of Industrial Organizations, better known as the CIO, in Franklin Roosevelt's nineteen-thirties, with opposition only from those opposed to unions by whatever name.

It was surprising how quickly Wadsworth 's children forgot Eu gene Debs and nearly everything that had happened to them and their families only a few months earlier.

In September, Louise and Barbara were back in school, even though Sheridan had not yet been cleared of involvement in violence, and was not rehired until just before Christmas. There were quite a few empty seats that term because so many had been blacklisted, and many of them were forced to move to Winnemucca, some distance to the east in Nevada, while others went to Reno, or over the mountains to California. Louise didn't forget - not for a moment.

But it was not until she began attending the lectures of a remarkable English instructor, Herbert Crombie Howe, on the University of Oregon campus at Eu gene , was she able to start piecing together the social and economic elements in American life which created such violent opposition to Eu gene Debs and his attempt to organize workers along non-traditional lines.

Campus days, however, were still a long ways off for Louise, and Debs' appearance in Wadsworth and the impression he made on her, did very little to suppress her urge to draw attention to herself, no matter by what means or what the consequences might be. Thus, Ernie Pierson, who says he is ninety or maybe more, and who lives in a shack in Wadsworth just about where the Bryant home stood three-quarters of a century ago, takes you outside, faces west, swings his right arm in a wide arc and points to what is now a large stretch of desert.

My brother and the fellows would stand there and get horny watching it. He remembers one cold winter morning he was helping his brother deliver milk. When they came to the Bryant home, his brother told him to go ahead and deliver the milk. He took the big milk can and opened the front door nobody locked their doors at that time to fill the pan customers always had ready.

Barbara skedaddled into the bed-room like a scared rabbit when she saw me, but Louise only pretended she was in a hurry, and walked slowly to where she stood behind the stove, dragging her dress after her, and she kept peeking out at me.

I never saw a girl before without a dress on in long white drawers with lace at the bottom of the legs. In the fall of , when she was nearing her eleventh birthday and school had just begun, the Wadsworth Dispatch carried this item under the caption BIRTHS: The item in the paper made ten-year-old Louise mad. Why, she wanted to know, did the newspaper item fail to mention her mother's name? It was she and not Sheridan who gave birth to the baby, wasn't it? This new injustice only increased her growing dislike of Sheridan and his gold tooth, who complained because she had began referring to him as Sheridan instead of the usual names children use.

I am going to call you Sheridan, Sheridan, Sheridan! Her mother was very tired, and worried about the way Louise and Sheridan had been quarreling, and could not answer questions about why newspapers wrote the way they did about births or anything else, in a way that would satisfy Louise. Louise, however, would not be put off. She could not under-stand how her mother could accept this terrible slight so calmly and resolved to do something about it herself.

She sauntered out of the house, and began to walk faster when she was outside. Her destination was the Wadsworth Dispatch Office.

She was going to find out why women were being treated even worse at times, than the railroad workers by their bosses.

They gave birth to children and cooked and kept house and all they were allowed to do for money was to teach school or work in the library, or do what the women in that house across the street from them did.

Nick Hummel, the editor looked up. Hummel looked puzzled, glanced at the page she handed him, scratched his head, looked closely at the determined little girl before him. You going to be one too? When you become a writer, dear, try to change that. I'll try and do better the next time somebody is born. At eleven, Louise experienced periods of depression without knowing why. She knew only that she was unhappy because her mother had so very little time for her now that she had Billy to take care of along with two-year-old Floyd.

Bryant always managed to see to it that both she and Barbara always turned up at school in spotlessly clean dresses and Louise's long shiny black hair was neatly braided and the ends tied together with a bright bit of ribbon. Sometimes Louise felt guilty and remorseful and surprised both her mother and Barbara by a sudden interest in scraping and washing the dishes and insisted on taking on the chores Barbara had always had to perform.

Still she continued to resent the attention and love her mother lavished on the boys, and she made it quite clear to Barbara that someday- she would show everybody she could outdo them in every field. She continued to badger her mother with questions, sometimes so outlandish Mrs.

Bryant, now nearing forty and picking' up weight, could only look at her with frustration and despair. As Louise saw her mother change from the pretty, youngish woman who always had time to talk to her and tell her grand stories, she blamed Sheridan and her brothers. She gradually pulled away from her mother, wondering how she let Sheridan change her so, and determined that she would never let a man do this to her.

As her feeling of estrangement from her mother grew, her father, Hugh Mohan, began to appear more and more frequently in her dreams at night. Sometimes, however, as she was complaining bitterly to him about the way her mother ignored her while lavishing attention on her brothers, he would vanish and she would find herself talking to one of the women in the big house across the street, or to Eu gene Debs.

Other times, when he beckoned to her and she came near, she would find it was Eu gene Debs, and once all three of them and the women from across the street were fighting with the soldiers who were trying to keep them from getting into the burning roundhouse. In the daytime world, she began to find it more and more awkward to confide in her mother, and soon even her flow of questions began to taper off.

What troubled her and made her feel guilty, was that no matter how resentful and mean she was to Sheridan, he continued to be gentle and kind to everyone, and more so to her than to the others. Wadsworth 's houses of ill fame - all twenty-four of them - were of course, off limits to boys and girls, especially the one across the street from the Bryant home. This was because this one was some distance from uptown, where the others were located.

Here, the dispensers of the world's oldest profitable commodity came from the best brothels in Los Angeles , San Francisco , Portland and Seattle , and the fees were set deliberately high to force the hoi-polloi of Wadsworth 's libidinous male population to seek erotic pleasure elsewhere.

In short, this one was reserved for the best people of Wadsworth , which, in turn, made it irresistible to boys and girls in the early and middle teens. Despite rigid instructions from their parents, they found ways to collect material for discussion at school the next day. She was twelve and a half on that warm early June afternoon when the perfect opportunity presented itself.

Sheridan was on the road and Mrs. Bryant and Barbara had gone uptown to shop, planning to attend a shower for a June bride afterward. Louise picked the best apparel available - the outfit that Mrs. Bryant had bought for Barbara's confirmation - a full skirt with a deep hem at the bottom, tightly gathered at the waist, and falling prettily about her legs.

It had a low neckline with short full puff sleeves, which spread gracefully like balloons, and the sleeves, as well as the neck, were trimmed with narrow lace edging.

Louise glanced out the window, saw only one figure in the rocking chair on the long porch of the big house, and picking up a rubber ball from the sofa, walked out of the house.

No one was in sight. She crossed the street, bouncing the ball as she went, and stopped at the high, slightly sloping wooden sidewalk that led to the house. She bounced the ball once or twice and when it began gliding down the slope, she pretended annoyance and went a bit faster after it. Mamie watched curiously as Louise stopped to retrieve the ball just as it was opposite her chair on the porch. She smiled at Louise and beckoned to her.

Louise suddenly was frightened. What if someone saw her; She hesitated and began to walk slowly toward the porch steps. She appraised Mamie as she rocked back and forth, and suddenly felt embarrassed when she realized that Mamie had on nothing more than an oversized pink negligee with white lace in front and on her feet pink slippers to match, which had tufts of white cotton in the center.

Mamie glanced at Louise's lovely, but bewildered, face and smiled. I don't wear anything underneath. Here we only dress in the evening when it's time to greet the guests.

Louise could only stare at Mamie rocking slowly in the chair. She had never heard anyone talk like that. She glanced quickly again to see if anyone was watching. Then she grew bolder. Men like women who use lipstick and rouge and powder and perfume. But you, dear, don't need it.

You're real pretty in that nice dress, and I never saw anyone with such red cheeks like you have. That broke the ice. Louise asked to smell the lipstick and Mamie reached into a handbag on the floor beside her and let her rub a little lipstick on her lips, then quickly rubbed it off. Mamie laughed, "I'd let you keep it, but if your ma found out she'd have the police here in no time and we'd be run out of town. Louise grew still bolder. She told Mamie that her mother had said the reason women lived in this house was because they had no husbands and needed money to buy food and did things with men they didn't even like.

Mamie was silent and then said: I had a husband, but he was killed in a train wreck ' in Salt Lake City and the company wouldn't even pay for the funeral, and Gene Debs' union was busted by the troops. So I went to Seattle and got a job like this before coming here. Living here, dear, is much better than a pot walloping job or hash slinging in some greasy spoon, and don't let nobody tell you it ain't. Louise didn't know what pot walloping was, but did know what hash slinging meant.

Anyhow, she was so excited and could hardly wait until she would be able to swear her friends to secrecy and tell them about this great adventure. But as daring as Louise was, she waited until she was on the Eu gene campus of the University of Oregon , and away from the Bryants in Nevada , before she began wearing lipstick, becoming the first woman on the campus to do so, and brazenly appear in public.

This did nothing to improve the university's image throughout the state of Oregon. The campus was already being attacked from every direction as a hotbed of radicalism and atheism because of the unorthodox teaching methods employed by Professor Howe. Whether the Bryants learned of Louise's meeting with Mamie could not be determined. But Ernie Pierson said the boys quickly found out about it and began calling her Lulu instead of Louise - a name the "call boys" had given her because she flirted with them when they came to the Bryant home to tell Sheridan what train crew he was to join.

As for Louise, she did nothing to discourage the spreading of these reports by,: Indeed, she embellished them by hinting at probing questions she had posed to elicit confidential information from Mamie about the erotic lives Mamie and her friends led.

The truth, however, was that it was quite some time before she began to add a new dimension to her own life by starting to think seriously, more and more frequently, about the "real thing" involving Jimmy Kolchak. She had always liked him, but this was mostly because he never failed to listen carefully when she talked to him about her father and grandparents and her own hopes to become a writer. He, himself, was not so ambitious.

He told her that he had an uncle who owned a gene ral merchandise store in Stockton , California , and would someday go to work for him, but he also thought he would like to take singing lessons. Everybody said he had such a nice voice. Their favorite place to meet during summer vacation was the shady space between the school wall and the big cylindrical fire escape.

There they would sit with their backs to the wall, she with her eyes shut, dreamily talking about the future, and he listening, while his hand roamed along her knee toward her thigh. She did not mind, because it was pleasant and vaguely exciting, not much different from the times she and Jimmy were kissing and hugging and he fumbled around with his hands all over her. Sometimes he would try to get his hand under her dress and she would become a little frightened and break away from him. But one warm June day in , when she was about six and a half months past her fourteenth birthday, and he was almost sixteen.

Jimmy Kolchak suddenly became two different people. First, he was her friend and confidant, listening attentively to what she had to say. But when they finally rose to their feet, and she put her arms around him as she had always done when they were ready to go home, she found herself staring at someone else - a boy with wild eyes and a white face and trembling hands, clutching at her, pleading and begging, pushing her to the ground with one hand while the other frantically tore at the bottom of her dress.

She began to fight him off but then she relented and was still. It was a painful, messy and awkward experience - not even remotely related to the way she had dreamed it would be in her highly romantic fantasies.

Only the effect it had on Jimmy amazed and intrigued her. When it was over. Jimmy was contrite and apologetic and both were silent as they walked home. Louise marveled at the change. Only a short time ago he was so wild and eager, pledging eternal love, mumbling over and over that he had made sure she would not get in trouble, promising everything in the world. She wanted to talk to her mother about what had happened to her, but quickly realized the time was gone for that sort of thing.

It would achieve nothing, only add to her mother's distress. In bed that night, as she went over each detail of the afternoon in her mind, she found her discomfort and embarrassment giving way to a sense of power and pleasure over her ability to affect this young man so deeply.

It gave her a warm glow and helped her to dismiss the loneliness and desertion she had been feeling at home. And so, the next time she and Jimmy were alone his eager-ness and devotion quickly overcame her reluctance and sex suddenly became an exciting and important element in her life.

It continued to delight Louise how overwhelmed Jimmy was each time. He would ask her to marry him when they were both old enough, offering to work the rest of his life for her, and even die for her. The next ten years or so, left no doubt in Louise's mind that the world was full of Jimmys. At home, things were going from bad to worse. Bryant had begun getting hints from parents of Louise's classmates that her daughter was not the best influence in the world on their own daughters.

And Louise, heady with her new power, was becoming a notorious young "vamp," and twenty-year-old men were beginning to cast longing glances in her direction. When Louise was nearing her seventeenth birthday, the Southern Pacific was ready to begin moving everything from Wadsworth to Sparks , and Barbara was engaged to marry Fred Hansen, a civil engineer the railroad had sent in to help in the moving.

Bryant became more than ever concerned about her daughter's future. They would soon be living near Reno and Louise would be going to the university there and living away from home.

That was the time Mrs. Bryant began revealing to Louise and Barbara the truth about her life with their father, and the way he had died. She tried hard to convince Louise that had her father not lived quite so rebelliously, so unconventionally, quite so devil-may-care, he would, in all probability, not have died when he was only forty years old, and he might have achieved some of the goals he had struggled so hard for - perhaps at a slower pace, who knows.

But it was too late, Louise had made her choice-the pattern of her life was set and irreversible. Barbara and Fred Hansen were married in Reno on June 2, , and Nick Hummel pulled out all the stops when he wrote it up for the Wadsworth Dispatch. Nearly everyone was mentioned in a flowery description of the marriage ceremony "at sunset in the parlors of the Riverside Hotel in Reno. Bryant, her father, gave the bride away. The groom is a civil engineer in the employ of the Southern Pacific Company.

He made many friends during his sojourn in Wadsworth , andalways was a fine young man in character and habit, and is tendered the congratulations of our people in having won so estimable a young lady for a life partner.

The bride is a very handsome woman and a very sensible one, and will adorn any home or station. She is accomplished and has those traits that goto make a charming wife. She has lived in Wadsworth the most of her young life and has won the admiration and respect of all with whom she came in contact. With her friends who are legion, the Dispatch unites in wishing her and her husband many years of happiness.

They will spend their honeymoontouring the land of sunshine, fruit and flowers, California. That "sonafabitch" Nick Hummel again failed to mention her mother's name. The Southern Pacific's move to Sparks was completed in Every bit of railroad property was loaded onto flat freight cars and moved; even the trees in the little park by the downtown depot were uprooted for replanting in Sparks. The homes were torn down board by board for reassembling at their new location.

The Wadsworth Dispatch moved and became today's Sparks Dispatch. The "coup de grace" was administered to the once-booming railroad town with a population of 2,, by the Southern Pacific when it moved the main line tracks to a new location. Wadsworth then began sinking into dusty obscurity to become one of Nevada 's many ghost towns. In Sparks, the railroad set aside a narrow strip of land that ran parallel with the tracks and all who had homes in Wadsworth drew lots for bits of ground on which to reassemble them.

The Bryant home went up a hundred yards or so in back of what is now the garish Nugget Casino. A couple of blocks to the west, the Cunninghams put up their home. Cunningham was an engineer, who often pulled the trains on which Sheridan Bryant was the conductor. Their son, Ferris - himself a retired Southern Pacific engineer, still lives in the house. It is he who best recalls the Bryant family - his playmates Floyd and Bill, Mrs. Bryant, taking on weight and playing the piano, Sheridan Bryant, in his conductor's uniform.

One time she said: In the fall of , when Louise enrolled at the University of Nevada , she was almost eighteen and was well on the way to becoming the slender, willowy, raven-haired beauty who would overwhelm John Reed, Eu gene O'Neill and William C. Even jealous women grudgingly described her as "strikingly pretty.

Older men sometimes called her Rosy because of her cheeks, and sorority sisters remembered how she would feign annoyance and exclaim: I look like a street-woman. Edna Folsom, one of her sorority sisters, who now lives in a fashionable rest home in Reno , described her as "one of the most beautiful girls the University of Nevada campus had ever seen.

Here, at the University of Nevada , she gave her correct age for the last time, listing as the year of her birth, and San Francisco the place where she was born. By the time she enrolled at the University of Oregon , she had made herself two years younger, giving as her birth year.

She finally settled for , some ten years younger than she really was. The slashing of years from her age was only one of the many steps she would take to preserve her new image of herself.

That she succeeded is demonstrated by the many who accepted the dates at face value for articles and biographies. She was classified at Reno as a middle high school student.

This was because few high schools in Nevada , like the combined elementary and high school in Wadsworth , provided courses that would qualify students for college entrance at that time.

She was one of the University's total enrollments of students in , with 89 taking the middle high school courses. The next year she moved to liberal arts and joined the editorial staff of the Student Record, forerunner of the present campus paper, The Sagebrush. Bryant's fears were justified. Louise not only refused to live at the Bryant home in Sparks, a few miles from the campus, but after a brief trial of living with Uncle Philip and Aunt Mary, who had by that time given up farming and moved into a Reno house at Walnut Street, she gave that up also.

She wanted no one to tell her that nice young ladies didn't undress and drop their clothes on the floor of whatever room they happened to be in at the moment. So Louise packed her belongings and moved to Manzanita Hall on the campus. She quickly became involved with one of the handsome male students, Leslie Elliott, the son of a wealthy cattle ranch family near Bridgeport , California.

All this happened so many, many years ago, but for Louise's Manzanita Hall sorority sister, Mrs. Edna 5'olson, it is as though it was a recent occurrence. When she left the campus, he was heart-broken and despondent. Any one of us would have been happy to comfort and console him, but he just kept on brooding and walking around like a lost soul. When she left Reno , we did not hear from her, nor anything about her, until years later when her name began to turn up in big headlines in all the papers.

And what headlines they were: On February 21, , thirteen years after Louise left the Seno campus, newspapers throughout the country reported her appearance before a committee of the United States Senate, investigating post-World War One propaganda in America, and the Reno Evening Gazette splashed it all over page one with an eight-column headline: In addition to describing her actual appearance before the committee, the article took pains to remind the paper's readers: Listed among her numerous other sins was the fact that she was a suffragette and was among those extremists in the movement who tried to burn President Wilson in effigy before the White House.

The Gazette appeared to be taking what might best be described as ghoulish pride at being able to report that in her appearance before the committee in Washington, Louise Bryant, a Sparks girl, "created an uproar which occupied space in every daily paper in the country. Insults became more and more humiliating and threats more and more ominous. Neighbors shunned them and fellow-workers spoke to Sheridan only when their work required it. Sheridan was finally forced to ask the southern Pacific to transfer him from sparks to the eastern terminal of the division across the Sierra Nevada at Roseville, a short distance from Sacramento.

Louise, too, was deeply affected. She was not unaware of the impact her activities had on her mother, by that time, sixty-two, and she felt helplessly trapped.

It did little, however, to impress the people of Sparks. By , Louise accumulated enough credits to move to the University of Oregon campus at Eu gene. Here her intellectual development took a new turn under the influence of the remark-able English instructor, Herbert Crombie Howe. While at the other end of the continent, at Harvard, John Reed, was about to come under the influence of an equally remarkable English instructor, Charles Townsend Copeland, known to all the students as "Copey.

But unlike Professor Copeland, who was content with devoting his energies to turning out some of the nation's most distinguished authors and political commentators. Professor Howe's unorthodox style of teaching, and activities on and off the campus, shook up the entire state of Oregon during the first two decades of this century in a way that would not be equaled until the riotous days of the nineteen-sixties.

Louise Bryant added to this, by wearing daringly sheer blouses and turning up in public with lipstick. She had selected history for her major, but she soon found the head of that department Professor Joseph Schafer, dignified, scholarly, but completely dull and uninspiring.

It was inevitable that she should join the scores of other students who flocked to Professor Howe's lectures. They caused parents, taxpayers, investigating committees, preachers and newspaper editors throughout the state to demand not only the ouster of Professor Howe, but all radicals, from tax-supported college payrolls. There certainly was nothing about the professor's appearance, when Louise first saw him, to suggest he was the sort who could arouse the entire state of Oregon the way he did.

He was a mild-mannered, slight-built man in his middle thirties, with a Vandyke beard and a heavy mustache. His black hair was combed straight back. During lectures he wore gray trousers and a dark coat buttoned so high, barely a trace of his white shirt and black bowtie showed.

Only his penetrating eyes gave hint of a man in love with books and a determination to bring to life the ideas buried in their pages.

He had been head of the English Department for five years when Louise enrolled, and by that time had the state of Oregon in an uproar. For as soon as he came to Eu gene from Cornell University in New York , he began a campaign to convert the place from a sleepy academy to a dynamic educational institution.

It seemed like a great idea, but it was devastating to Oregon educational tradition. Only the university's liberal president, Dr.

Frank Strong, seemed to remain unperturbed. But before too long, he too, became troubled. Professor Howe was a Unitarian; he was a Socialist and wrote the platform for Eu gene 's Socialist candidate for mayor; he was an agnostic and Louise sat wide-eyed and open-mouthed when she heard him say: The idea that God could not forgive the remote descendants of Adam and Eve until He had been placated by the blood of His own Son, is a hideously ogrerish notion.

When word of this talk on "The Humanity of Christ" got out, taxpayers began flooding editors with letters demanding that the Board of Regents get rid of agnostics, radicals and other trouble makers before their children became infected. The Grants Pass Outlook told its readers: And Evangelist Roscoe Drummond hurled Biblical thunderbolts throughout the state. Louise had never been happier. Professor Howe's lectures were eye-openers.

She waited eagerly for those occasions when he met with small groups of students for private sessions, but all his lectures were stimulating, exciting and informative. He had, among other things, inaugurated the practice of lecturing to mixed classes on books, which had always been taboo. And scandal of scandals, he returned to the shelves, books by such daring authors as Ibsen, Zola and others, whose works had always been carefully expurgated of material which might taint the morals of the students who read them.

Scandalous or not, Ibsen and Zola banished forever whatever inhibitions Louise still had about sex. Jack London had not yet written his most significant two books, "Martin Eden," and "The Iron Heel," but she was intrigued when she learned he had become a Socialist while in jail in , the very year of the Eu gene Debs conflict. Tolstoy and Dostoievski gave her the first glimpse of life in Russia , and Shaw's "Man and Superman," published only a few years earlier, answered a good many questions about woman's place in society, and convinced her that only by becoming militant and aggressive would they ever achieve their rightful place.

She became active on and off the campus. She circulated petitions on behalf of public ownership of Eu gene 's utilities, passed out leaflets urging support for the socialist candidate for mayor, and was among the leaders of students who threatened to boycott classes if Professor Howe was fired. She found time to organize a chapter of Chi Omega on the campus, and to play the romantic lead in Sheridan 's "Rivals," with the University's dramatic department when it staged its annual play in downtown Eu gene.

She also became an associate editor on the staff of the University of Oregon Monthly Magazine , providing black and white drawings to Illustrate stories, and saw her very first poem appear in print in the magazine: Every leaf of red and gold,.

That flutters in the wind,. Every drop of dreary rain,. Methinks brings back to mind. So every golden pumpkin,. The apples bright and red,.

Seemed as if they said. Her clothes, especially her lace blouses, became more and more daring. Only an appeal, tinged with a threat from the housemother, caused her to slow down on the blouses, which were nearing the scandalous stage. She insisted she was not trying to attract men, but was only defying convention. She did not need daring clothes to attract men - a dozen were competing for her attention.

Carl was Eu gene 's most eligible bachelor, and what caused so much tongue wagging was the fact that he was not even a University of Oregon student. Significantly, Louise wrote her thesis on the Modoc Indian "War of ; one of the most vicious and treacherous in the history of Indian warfare in the West. One day near the end of her stay at the University of Oregon , there appeared on the campus, at the invitation of Professor Howe, a most unusual individual.

He came onto the platform to lecture on "The Poor Quality of Modern Education" in knee-high boots into which were tucked the bottoms of his trousers. His mauve-colored frockcoat was buttoned tightly and a bright, red ribbon, more than four inches wide and made into a huge bow tie, extended on each side of his long beard.

He was practicing law at that time in Portland where he had two offices - one in the Chamber of Commerce Building where he met corporation clients, which Included Jim Hill's Great Northern Railroad. The other was a hideaway where he met with radicals who were in trouble with the law and broke. To this hideaway, also came poets, inventors, would-be authors and other dreamers of grand projects.

He, him-self, wrote deeply moving poetry and authored books and articles, the most famous of which appeared years later in book form under the title, "Heavenly Discourse. Wood was fifty-six years old at that time, but he had not yet begun to lose interest in pretty women. At the reception at Professor Howe's home in his honor after the lecture, Louise introduced herself and told him how much she had enjoyed his lecture.

Wood smiled and looked closely at her. Was that lipstick she was wearing? He asked her some questions about herself. Then he held Louise's hand while saying good-night, and with his fingers lingering on her bare arm, suggested that she drop in to see him at his office in the Chamber of Commerce Building should she decide to make her home in Portland after graduation.

Because of her preparatory studies and credits at the University of Nevada , she was able to collect her Bachelor of Arts degree in History after only two years and three months at Eu gene. On January 8, , she left the University of Oregon -her destination - Portland. It didn't take long for her to discover what she might have learned on the campus at Eu gene had she made some inquiries and read the Portland newspapers at the university's library. Professor Howe, Joseph Schafer, even Charles Erskine Scott Wood, when he came to lecture, would have made clear, that for a woman to break into the journalism business in could be likened to the biblical camel's attempt to get through the eye of a needle.

Moreover a reading of the Portland papers would have made it equally clear that, even if she had managed the miracle and gotten a job on a Portland paper, there was nothing in their columns, news wise or editorial wise, to encourage the belief she would be able to set the world on fire. It was truly a man's world. Whenever women did manage to break into journalism they were invariably relegated to the dreary, dull work of writing routine items about the doings of society, and Portland was no exception.

In instances, where women managed somehow to gain fame as artists and scientists, or notoriety as criminals, it was usually male drama critics and science editors who wrote the newsworthy items about the former, and male police reporters who took care of the sensational details involving the latter.

Louise had assumed that her diploma and copies of the campus magazine listing her as a member of the editorial staff, plus samples of her fine black and white drawings for the magazine, would be more than enough to demonstrate her qualifications for a newspaper job.

Not even sheer blouses and lipstick could overcome the myth that women were unequipped both physically and emotionally to work alongside of men in journalism. William Randolph Hearst finally let women into journalism, but only by creating a new myth that only women at lower pay, of course could write "sob stories" about wives of criminals who were about to be hung.

At that moment in history, however, Hearst was trying to become mayor of New York , and he had no paper in Portland , anyway. There were four daily papers in Portland at that time -the Oregonian, the Journal, the Telegram and the Daily News, and at each one city editors shook their heads.

Even the society departments were closed to her. The city editors were certain that in addition to being unequipped to meet the rugged requirements for being a journalist, this applicant for a job would be a disruptive element if she were hired. They felt that the very presence of this provocative brunette would play havoc with the morale of the other women employees, most of who were plain, honest, uncomplaining, and quite content and eager to do what they were told to do. She persisted, however, and returned again and again, until it became the job of the copyboys to say, "No, nothing yet, Miss Bryant," as soon as they saw her coming.

At the Telegram, a short, chubby, balding man tried to explain to her that Portland was a rough place even for men journalists, and women trying to compete with them in covering sordid crimes, fires, often violent labor disputes and political scandals, would find themselves helpless. She told him that she could handle it, but John Small shook his head. Art Young, years later when she no longer had to pretend she was once a feature writer for the Oregonian.

Finally she thought of Charles Erskine Scott Wood and his invitation to visit him if she came to Portland. She recalled the way he looked at her as his fingers slid along her bare arm at Professor Howe's reception. She had some reservations, but she was also running out of choices. She needn't, however, have had any qualms. For by the time she arrived in Portland , Wood was already deeply involved with Sara Bard Field, who was only two years older than Louise, and was still the wife of Albert Ehrgott, a Baptist minister, inclined toward Socialism, as was Sara herself.

Louise decided to see him. To her pleasant surprise he greeted her warmly, ready to help, and listened closely, smiling occasionally as she told him about her troubles trying to convince city editors that they should give her a chance at journalism.

He seemed impressed and moved when she explained why she was so determined to become a journalist, touching briefly on her childhood days in Wadsworth and the violent days she had lived through there. He took her to see Hugh Hume, who had some years earlier begun to publish a slick-paper weekly tabloid in Portland called The Spectator. The paper's offices were in the old Chamber of Commerce building, which housed Wood's office.

Hume, a nonconformist, also with an eye for beautiful women, was as impressed as his friend Wood was with her charm and her determination to break into a field dominated by men, and offered to help her. He promised to make room for her on the staff of The Spectator as soon as possible, but until an opening on the staff occurred, he suggested she find work in some other field not far from Portland.

Wood said he would help her get a job teaching school. The school term was well under way and it was not easy to find a school where she might be able to work full-time and then quit when The Spectator had an opening. Finally he located one that needed a teacher. There classes did not start until early in March because some of the children had to row daily to school from small neighboring islands, and could do so only after the worst of the winter stormy weather ended. When the boat arrived and got tied up we saw her come down the gangplank after the captain, and a deckhand, who was carrying her trunk on his shoulder.

I was hanging onto my mother's skirts when I smelled it. I smelled perfume for the first time in my life. Clarence Irwin, now living in Bellingham , Washington , near the Canadian border, recalled the arrival of Louise Bryant on Stuart Island in March of to begin teaching her and some twenty other children.

Nobody on the island had ever seen anyone dressed so beautifully as she was, except maybe in the mail order catalogues. In one hand she had a handbag and the other was sticking out from a small muff and hanging onto an umbrella. What I remember best was that everybody was so surprised nobody said anything.

I remember to this day that pleasant smell, which my mother later told me was perfume and that good girls and ladies didn't use perfume. It really was a tiny island, one of one hundred and sixty that make up the San Juan group.

Puget Sound was, countless centuries ago, a mighty mountainous valley until the Pacific Ocean crashed through the coastline and flooded it.

This island is only four miles long, and less than a mile wide. On a map, its shape resembles a large prehistoric bird in clumsy flight. It's location in Puget Sound is such that it became an ideal place for the United States government to build a lighthouse to guide ships from the Orient and elsewhere bound for points on the American and Canadian mainland. Irwin's father -she was Leila Borchers, and only seven at that time - was the lighthouse keeper, and the island's most important citizen.

In addition to the Borchers family, with its four children, there were eight other families, as well as a dozen or so unmarried men who made a living catching salmon for shipment to canneries in Seattle and other cities on the mainland. There was a small, one-room schoolhouse, a stone's throw from the small bay where the mail boat docked, and where the children from other islands tied up their rowboats when they came to school.

Louise never forgot the months she spent on the island, living in the large house in back of the lighthouse with the Borchers family, listening to the mournful foghorn warning ships as they passed between the island and Vancouver Island all night long. Five days a week she walked the mile and a half to the schoolhouse with the four Borchers children, each carrying a lunch Callie Borchers, the mother, put up for them.

The child-ren called her Miss Louise, and spent more time staring at her beautiful clothes than at their lessons, but it was the first time she was earning money, and she was happy as she waited for an opening on The Spectator in Portland. Something else that made her time pass agreeably and which she often spoke of later, were three unmarried men, Finns, who made a living catching fish.

Saturday mornings she dressed in old clothes and heavy boots they had provided for her and she joined them in their fish-cleaning shack to take care of the week's catch. She soon knew the difference between a King salmon, a Silver, a Humpback and a Sockeye. When the salmon weren't around, there were plenty giant rock cod and other bottom fish to clean.

She enjoyed hearing the Finns laugh as she practiced wielding a huge knife and learned to open the belly of a fish with one wide sweeping slash of the knife. She often joined them when it came time to eat, and from them learned several ways to prepare fish for the table the way they did it in Finland. Louise got her chance to demonstrate her culinary expertise on John Reed with one of these simpler recipes, during their very first meeting in Portland , about six years later.

Also, during her years with Reed, she was able to impress Portuguese fishermen in Provincetown , Massachusetts , and then revolutionary workers in Russia , by boasting of her fish-cleaning days, changing details slightly: The Finns shack on tiny Stuart Island became a large cannery in Seattle , and the Finns, fellow-cannery workers. One day early in May of , Louise and the children returned from school and she found Mr. Borchers had brought home a letter for Louise along with the rest of the mail from the mail boat.

Irwin recalls, "Louise went wild with excitement. Then she asked the mother Callie Borchers, to take over her teaching job for a week or so. She said she had been invited to Portland for a class reunion. On Monday, May 10, , she collected the.

Three weeks after that, the Borchers received a letter from her saying she had accepted a job on a newspaper in Portland , and asked them to send her trunk. And then, a few days before Christmas, they received a holiday greeting card: Tell my Finns I love them. It was signed Louise Bryant Trullinger. Portland was a magnificent city going through its biggest boon.

It had a population of ,, compared to only 97, ten years earlier. Eastward was one of the country's spectacular roads through the Columbia River gorge, with its many spider thread waterfalls; and one hundred or so miles to the west was the Pacific Ocean. Helens and Mount Adams towered on the city's northern and eastern horizons. It was a city of roses and grand estates, great wealth, shanties and incredible poverty. As John Small, the Telegram's city editor, had told her, it was a city of political corruption and a tough place to live for those protesting any change in the status quo.

When Louise came there, the city was still rocking from one of the greatest scandals - uncovered only a few years earlier and known as the Oregon Land and Timber Frauds. At Portland's own little Bohemia, the city's radicals and nonconformists met to talk Freud, Marx, women's political rights and persecution of the Wobblies. They had organized the revolutionary International workers of the World, or I. Only a year before she arrived in Portland , the Wobblies split, the milder, more timid socialists breaking away, and leaving the revolutionary wing to Debs and Haywood.

It was a signal for the federal Government, the timber barons and railroad tycoons in Oregon and Washington to crack down in earnest on radicals, without regard for dialectic distinctions. For Louise, it was all new, wonderful and exciting. She had a job - a real one - on a real newspaper. To be sure, it was only a weekly, but it had an artistic flavor and an editorial policy which she was sure even Professor Howe would approve, perhaps grudgingly, but still approve. There was little body-type on the slick paper's front-page, only a full-page pastoral scene or a full-face picture of an Indian woman, or the expressive, wrinkled face of an old man in Rembrandt style.

Also, Hugh Hume's editorials pleased her. He was a cautious liberal, who attacked the trusts, war supporters and those who exploited Oregon 's natural resources without regard for the future. There were always bits in the paper about the injustice of depriving women of their political rights, and once in a while a carefully worded reproach for authorities using unlawful methods to suppress Wobblies and other dissenters.

She provided fine-line drawings of the latest in women's fashions, as well as borders for advertisements. She did not even mind, at least not at first, having to write items about Portland society, rewriting them from the daily papers, as was then the practice, and still is today in places where there are competing newspapers.

She lived in hope that she would soon be able to get a job on one of the daily papers, and Fred Lockley, a Journal reporter, encouraged her to stay with The Spectator until something better came along. Small paper though it was, she loved to see her name in Portland city directories: The Spectator; r Yamhill. She rarely spoke to anyone about her family, but usually answered the letters she received from her mother In Sparks. Charles Erskine Scott Wood introduced her to Sara Bard Field, and they soon became close friends, confiding in each other constantly.

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