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Potential ungulate prey for Gray Wolves. Data were gathered for six ungulate species that reside in or near Yellowstone National Park. If gray wolves Canis lupus are reintroduced into the Yellowstone area, their avoidance of human activities or their management by human may determine their range. Therefore, the area of wolf occupation cannot be predicted now. We restricted our analysis to Yellowstone National Park and to the adjacent national forest wilderness areas.
We included mostly ungulate herds that summer inside or adjacent to the park and that would probably be affected by wolves. Our wolf study area includes Yellowstone National Park and adjacent wilderness areas most likely to be occupied by wolves. We reviewed publications, park records, survey reports, and state fish and game surveys and reports for statistics on ungulate populations. These data [provide an overview of ungulate populations and harvests.
Each ungulate herd is described in detail. We restricted our analysis to , because population surveys were more complete during that period and because population estimates of most ungulate populations had increased by the 's. We feel the higher estimates of the 's reflect more up-to-date techniques and are most representative of the situation into which the wolves would be reintroduced.
Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.
Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves Canis lupus and female, western coyotes Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U.
Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived.
These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western- gray -wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species.
However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves , Canis lupus.
Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf Canis lupus and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son.
With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring? As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources.
As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves , early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers.
In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves , however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws.
By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change. Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages.
Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota. Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf Canis lupus population in a 2,km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus CPV. The CPV had little effect P gt 0. However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation.
The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups.
Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves Canis lupus intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior.
Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent's size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size.
Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray -colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray -colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves , indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior.
Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems.
A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits related. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves , Canis lupus. We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves Canis lupus in three packs during winter in Scent-marking, frontal leadership time and frequency in the lead while traveling , initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park.
Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females 30 vs.
Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves , leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.
Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of tooth wear for aging gray wolves Canis lupus from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario based on 47 known-age or known-minimum-age skulls.
Estimates of age using tooth wear and a commercial cementum annuli-aging service were useful for wolves up to 14 years old. The precision of estimates from cementum annuli was greater than estimates from tooth wear, but tooth wear estimates are more applicable in the field.
We tended to overestimate age by years and occasionally by 3 or 4 years. The commercial service aged young wolves with cementum annuli to within?? No differences were detected in tooth wear patterns for wild wolves from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario, nor between captive and wild wolves.
Tooth wear was not appropriate for aging wolves with an underbite that prevented normal wear or severely broken and missing teeth. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover. We studied 22sodium 22Na turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves Canis lupus 2 F, 4 M over a day feeding period.
Wolves were fed white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was Sampling blood and weighing wolves every days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.
Object permanence in domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris and gray wolves Canis lupus. Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible Experiment 1 and visible Experiment 2 displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves ' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ.
The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication. Full Text Available Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals.
Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk.
We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf Canis lupus population counts in the southern Lake Superior region SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA in each of four measures of population growth.
We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mids when there were approximately wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region.
Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery.
The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk.
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