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Pawnee people are enrolled in the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma. Historically, they lived in Nebraska and Kansas. Historically, the Pawnee lived in villages of earth lodges with adjacent farmlands near the Loup , Republican and south Platte rivers. The Pawnee tribal economic activities throughout the year alternated between farming crops and hunting buffalo.
In the early 19th century, the Pawnee numbered more than 10, people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the west. They had suffered many losses due to Eurasian infectious diseases brought by the expanding Europeans. By , the Pawnee population was reduced to It further decreased, because of disease, crop failure, and warfare, to approximately by , after which time the Pawnee were forced to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.
Many Pawnee warriors enlisted to serve as Indian scouts in the US Army to track and fight their tribal enemies resisting European-American expansion on the Great Plains. There are approximately enrolled Pawnee and nearly all reside in Oklahoma.
Their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee, Oklahoma , and their tribal jurisdictional area is in parts of Noble , Payne , and Pawnee counties. The tribal constitution establishes the government of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.
The Resaru Council, also known as the "Chiefs Council" consists of eight members, each serving four-year terms. Each band has two representatives on the Resaru Council selected by the members of the tribal bands, Cawi, Kitkahaki, Pitahawirata and Ckiri. Subject to the limitations imposed by the Constitution and applicable Federal law, the Pawnee Business Council shall exercise all the inherent, statutory, and treaty powers of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma by the enactment of legislation, the transaction of business, and by otherwise speaking or acting on behalf of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma on all matters which the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma is empowered to act, including the authority to hire legal counsel to represent the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.
The new Council members were voted in by the people; elections are held every two years on the first Saturday in May. The Pawnee operate two gaming casinos, three smoke shops , two fuel stations, and one truck stop. Increased revenues from the casinos have helped them provide for education and welfare of their citizens. They issue their own tribal vehicle tags and operate their housing authority. The Pawnee were divided into two large groupings: As was typical of many Native American tribes, each band saw to its own.
In response to pressures from the Spanish , French and Americans , as well as neighboring tribes, the Pawnee began to draw closer together.
The Pawnee had a sedentary lifestyle combining village life and seasonal hunting, which had long been established on the Plains. Archeology studies of ancient sites have demonstrated the people lived in this pattern for nearly years, since about CE. The Pawnee generally settled close to the rivers and placed their lodges on the higher banks. They built earth lodges that by historical times tended to be oval in shape; at earlier stages, they were rectangular.
They constructed the frame, made of 10—15 posts set some 10 feet 3. Lodge size varied based on the number of poles placed in the center of the structure.
Most lodges had 4, 8 or 12 center poles. A common feature in Pawnee lodges were four painted poles, which represented the four cardinal directions and the four major star gods not to be confused with the Creator. A second outer ring of poles outlined the outer circumference of the lodge. Horizontal beams linked the posts together. The frame was covered first with smaller poles, tied with willow withes.
The structure was covered with thatch, then earth. The door of each lodge was placed to the east and the rising sun. A long, low passageway, which helped keep out outside weather, led to an entry room that had an interior buffalo-skin door on a hinge. It could be closed at night and wedged shut. Opposite the door, on the west side of the central room, a buffalo skull with horns was displayed. This was considered great medicine.
Mats were hung on the perimeter of the main room to shield small rooms in the outer ring, which served as sleeping and private spaces. The lodge was semi-subterranean, as the Pawnee recessed the base by digging it approximately three feet one meter below ground level, thereby insulating the interior from extreme temperatures.
Lodges were strong enough to support adults, who routinely sat on them, and the children who played on the top of the structures. As many as 30—50 people might live in each lodge, and they were usually of related families.
A village could consist of as many as — people and 10—15 households. Each lodge was divided in two the north and south , and each section had a head who oversaw the daily business. Each section was further subdivided into three duplicate areas, with tasks and responsibilities related to the ages of women and girls, as described below. The membership of the lodge was quite flexible. The tribe went on buffalo hunts in summer and winter. Upon their return, the inhabitants of a lodge would often move into another lodge, although they generally remained within the village.
Men's lives were more transient than those of women. They had obligations of support for the wife and family they married into , but could always go back to their mother and sisters for a night or two of attention. When young couples married, they lived with the woman's family in a matrilocal pattern.
The Pawnee are a matrilineal people. Ancestral descent is traced through the mother, and children are considered born into the mother's clan and are part of her people. Traditionally, a young couple moved into the bride's parents' lodge. People work together in collaborative ways, marked by both independence and cooperation, without coercion.
Both women and men are active in political life, with independent decision-making responsibilities. Within the lodge, each north-south section had areas marked by activities of the three classes of women:. Women tended to be responsible for decisions about resource allocation, trade, and inter-lodge social negotiations.
Women tended to remain within a single lodge, while men would typically move between lodges. They took multiple sexual partners in serially monogamous relationships. The Pawnee women were skilled horticulturalists and cooks, cultivating and processing ten varieties of corn , seven of pumpkins and squashes , and eight of beans.
These crops provided a wide variety of nutrients and complemented each other in making whole proteins. In addition to varieties of flint corn and flour corn for consumption, the women planted an archaic breed which they called "Wonderful" or "Holy Corn", specifically to be included in the sacred bundles. The holy corn was cultivated and harvested to replace corn in the sacred bundles prepared for the major seasons of winter and summer.
Seeds were taken from sacred bundles for the spring planting ritual. The cycle of corn determined the annual agricultural cycle, as it was the first to be planted and first to be harvested with accompanying ceremonies involving priests and men of the tribe as well. In keeping with their cosmology , the Pawnee classified the varieties of corn by color: The women kept the different strains pure as they cultivated the corn.
While important in agriculture, squash and beans were not given the same theological meaning as corn. In , the last 25 remaining seeds of the Pawnee Eagle Corn variety were successfully sprouted. The unique taste of Eagle Corn is described as being similar to almonds with cream.
According to True West Magazine , Eagle Corn soup had not been available for ceremonies for years. After they obtained horses, the Pawnee adapted their culture and expanded their buffalo hunting seasons. With horses providing a greater range, the people traveled in both summer and winter westward to the Great Plains for buffalo hunting.
In summer the march began at dawn or before, but usually did not last the entire day. Once buffalo were located, hunting did not begin until the tribal priests considered the time propitious. The hunt began by the men stealthily advancing together toward the buffalo, but no one could kill any buffalo until the warriors of the tribe gave the signal, in order not to startle the animals before the hunters could get in position for the attack on the herd.
Anyone who broke ranks could be severely beaten. During the chase, the hunters guided their ponies with their knees and wielded bows and arrows. They could incapacitate buffalo with a single arrow shot into the flank between the lower ribs and the hip. The animal would soon lie down and perhaps bleed out, or the hunters would finish it off.
An individual hunter might shoot as many as five buffalo in this way before backtracking and finishing them off. They preferred to kill cows and young bulls, as the taste of older bulls was disagreeable. After successful kills, the women processed the bison meat, skin and bones for various uses: Prepared in this way, it was usable for several months.
Although the Pawnee preferred buffalo, they also hunted other game, including elk, bear, panther, and skunk, for meat and skins. The skins were used for clothing and accessories, storage bags, foot coverings, fastening ropes and ties, etc. The people returned to their villages to harvest crops when the corn was ripe in late summer, or in the spring when the grass became green and they could plant a new cycle of crops.
Summer hunts extended from late June to about the first of September; but might end early if hunting was successful. Sometimes the hunt was limited to what is now western Nebraska. Winter hunts were from late October until early April and were often to the southwest into what is now western Kansas. Like many other Native American tribes, the Pawnee had a cosmology with elements of all of nature represented in it.
They based many rituals in the four cardinal directions. Pawnee priests conducted ceremonies based on the sacred bundles that included various materials, such as an ear of sacred corn, with great symbolic value. These were used in many religious ceremonies to maintain the balance of nature and the Pawnee relationship with the gods and spirits. In the s, already in Oklahoma, the people participated in the Ghost Dance movement.
The first Pawnee man was the offspring of the union of the Moon and the Sun. As they believed they were descendants of the stars, cosmology had a central role in daily and spiritual life.
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