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Cunt: A Cultural History of the C-Word

There are now estimated to be around 1. In Britain - home to the largest Haredi community in Europe - almost three out of every four Jewish births are in the Haredi community. If current trends continue, the strictly-Orthodox will constitute the majority of British Jews by The Haredi community first took root in Britain in Gateshead at the end of the 19th century, when a small group of Jews from Lithuania docked in Newcastle upon Tyne.

Appalled at what they regarded as the laxity of the local synagogue, they established their own on the other side of the river. With all of the great centres of Orthodox Jewish scholarship in Europe having been destroyed during the Holocaust, Gateshead became the largest such centre outside the United States and Israel.

It remains the principal centre of learning for the Haredi in Britain. In Stamford Hill, a small Haredi community that had lived in the area since the end of the 19th century was swollen dramatically by the influx of pre-war refugees and survivors of the Holocaust.

The population has grown with arrivals from Israel and America. Now within a tight geographical area, little more than a square mile, there are no fewer than 74 synagogues, or shuls, 32 orthodox schools, kosher supermarkets, butchers, fishmongers and a multitude of other businesses. To the outsider, the Stamford Hill Haredi community may seem like one confusing, amorphous whole, but in fact it is made up of a number of different streams, mostly Hasidic.

Hasidism had its roots in Podolia - what is now Ukraine - in the early 18th century, a populist movement that emphasised an ecstatic form of worship, deeply rooted in mysticism, and that quickly spread throughout Eastern Europe. The Hasidim are themselves subdivided into numerous rabbinical dynasties - the Satmar the largest group , the Gerer, the Belzer and the Bobover, all taking their name from the village or town in Poland, Hungary or Ukraine where they originated, and each distinguished by some slight variation of religious practice and of dress.

At the head of each dynasty is the grand rabbi, or Rebbe - nowadays all of whom are to be found living in Hasidic communities in New York or Israel. More than just a religious teacher, the Rebbe is held to be the fount of all wisdom and authority, on domestic, financial and marital matters - the repository of a stream of learning and wisdom that extends back through the rabbinical teachings and commentaries, to the Talmud and the Torah, and thus to Abraham, Moses and God Himself.

Walking around Stamford Hill , it is the geometry of family relationships that you notice. There are groups of mothers uniformly dressed in the mandatory dark coats and long skirts, and wearing the wigs that are an obligation for married women, pushing prams, a handful of children in tow.

There are groups of men, but seldom men and women together. Modesty is paramount to the Haredi, and the mingling of the sexes is strictly regulated. Unmarried boys and girls will have little contact with the opposite sex outside their families. At concerts and wedding parties men and women will always be separated. A Haredi man will avoid making eye-contact with any woman other than his wife, and would never shake hands. Among the Gerer, the more traditional will observe the rule that even husbands and wives should not be seen walking on the street together, giving rise to the joke: The act of study is a supreme religious obligation, as much for the layman as the rabbi, and the talmid hakham - the student of the Talmud, the compendious volumes of rabbinical discussions pertaining to Jewish law and custom - is venerated above all others.

All Haredi children in Stamford Hill attend Jewish schools, all of them single-sex, and all but one of them private. An Ofsted report on faith schools schools in noted that most of these Haredi schools have few resources, and many are in converted houses. Fees are heavily subsidised by the community at large, but for families with five, six or more children to educate the burden can be crippling. For boys in particular, education revolves almost entirely around religious studies.

The school week can sometimes be more than 40 hours, with the non-religious curriculum taking up only six or seven hours, mostly covering English, mathematics and general knowledge. In the last round of Ofsted inspections in , more than a third of the strictly Orthodox schools under inspection were criticised for the quality of their secular education. By their mid-teens boys will have entered a yeshiva, where they will remain until their shidduch - an arranged marriage, which usually happens between the ages of 18 and A married man will then go on to a kollel, either full or part-time.

In recent years, the enthusiasm for study has become more, not less, intense. Until the s full-time learning in the kollel was unusual - Gateshead was the only one in Britain. But now it is estimated that more than 20 per cent of married men continue their studies in a kollel well into middle-age and beyond, supported by their family. It is not unusual for wives to take on the burden of providing for their families. This emphasis on religious learning exacts a high price in other ways.

Haredim may be well educated in Jewish law, but many are poorly equipped for employment in the outside world. More than ten per cent of men obtain a rabbinical qualification, but very few have a professional one.

Many take jobs in the community that allow time for study. A survey suggested that between a quarter and a third of all men work in property; 18 per cent work in retail; 17 per cent teach in local Haredi institutions. The diamond business, centred in Hatton Garden, is a traditional mainstay. Such are the ties to the community that very few will chose to work outside it. I met him at his office at the school. He sat behind his desk, wearing a black beaver hat and top coat.

His grey beard gathered in clouds around his face, and sharp, amused eyes blinked behind rimless glasses. Rabbi Pinter is a ubiquitous and much-respected figure in Stamford Hill, a man who seems to enjoy his position as the public face of the Haredi community.

He runs three schools, and is an influential voice in any number of bodies and organisations. A discursive conversationalist, much given to jokes and ruminations, he has a reputation for worldliness - 'he has a Blackberry,' somebody told me. The girls' senior department became a voluntary aided school in , and at the same time moved into superb new, purpose-built accommodation. Tony Blair attended its official opening. The school has pupils, from 11 to 16, drawn from all sections of the Haredi community.

When the school became voluntary aided, Rabbi Pinter told me, there had been some parental concern about having to follow certain aspects of the national curriculum. But parents can choose to opt out. Sex education is something we deal with on our own terms through the Jewish curriculum, based on very strong family values.

I had never seen a school as clean and orderly as Yesodey Hatorah, nor a more well-behaved body of students. While the education of boys is centred on religious study, girls enjoy a much more balanced curriculum, at primary and secondary level. The attitude to learning was what defined a Jew as Haredi, Rabbi Pinter said. There is a difference in aspiration.

You could be an authority in halacha [Jewish law] - why would you want a PhD in physics? I would say second-rate.

A doctor, a lawyer, an accountant, I would say second-rate. The phone rang, and Rabbi Pinter answered it. I can think straight, I can think horizontally, and I can think with my head as well. Talmud develops a person morally, ethically and intellectually. Midwifery is a particularly popular option - and in Stamford Hill there is no shortage of opportunities to practise it. But for women, the primary expectation is to marry, create a home and raise their children in the faith.

Because of the size of families, and the emphasis put on continued religious studies, poverty is a real problem in the community. A study of the Stamford Hill community, Between Torah Learning and Wage Earning, published by the Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies in Jerusalem, estimated that more than half the households below retirement age were receiving a means tested benefit of some sort, 62 per cent of families in the study were receiving child benefits, and 70 per cent receiving housing benefits.

Agudas Israel Community Services is an independent body that gives advice to the Stamford Hill Haredi on welfare, employment and immigration issues. An affiliated housing association has more than residential units in Stamford Hill, neighbouring Haringey and Manchester.

Housing, Michael Posen the director of the advisory service told me, was a major concern among many Haredi in Stamford Hill. Of the 3, families in the community, more than 2, live in private rented accommodation; housing is scarce and and there are high levels of over-crowding.

He estimates that more than families in the community will be affected. But a lot of what the government has proposed will affect larger families disproportionately to smaller families. People in the community had a mixed view of drawing benefits, Posen went on. But in terms of stigma Jobseeker's Allowance, yes there would be embarrassment. I wondered, would worsening financial straits perhaps encourage people to have smaller families?

For that we can rely that we will be looked after by God. It might be argued, I said, that in this day and age one should be thinking about limiting numbers. He shot me a look. An authority in Jewish law offered another view.

The important thing to remember about the Haredi community, Posen told me, was how tightly knit and and mutually supportive it was. There was a complex web of organisations and voluntary groups giving support on everything from care of the elderly to providing bridal gowns for those unable to afford them. It was a place where people rich and poor live cheek by jowl, where one is expected to help the other, and where people dug deep.

Posen pointed out of the window of his office. A series of vignettes highlight life in Americana as he came into close contact with all the families in town. He worked with year-old alcoholic telegrapher Willie Grogan Frank Morgan.

Members of Homer's family included older brother Marcus Van Johnson off fighting in uniform - in love with college-aged neighbor Mary Dorothy Morris , and Homer's younger six year-old kid brother Ulysses Jackie "Butch" Jenkins. One day, Homer had to deliver the news to his own family and his widowed harp-playing mother Mrs. Macauley Fay Bainter that big brother Marcus had been killed in battle.

Marcus' best friend and service pal, orphaned and parentless Tobey George John Craven , was more or less adopted by the Macauley family after the heart-tearing news. The low-budget, creepy film was very effective for its moody and atmospheric tone and visually-stylistic terror regarding dark family secrets, voodoo rituals and legends.

The brooding, mystical melodrama told of the work of trained Canadian nurse Betsy Connell Frances Dee. The retrospective film was her description of how she had "walked with a zombie. Jessica's doctor claimed that her catatonic, zombie-like condition with no will of her own, no speaking, and seemingly lobotomized was caused by an incurable tropical fever.

She slowly began to fall in love with guilt-ridden Paul, when she learned that Paul and his younger, alcoholic half-brother Wesley Rand James Ellison had earlier quarreled over the love of the afflicted woman in a love triangle, and Wesley had an affair with Jessica.

Betsy was convinced that she could cure the "living dead" Jessica with a shot of insulin, but the shock treatment failed. She then learned from Jessica's native maid Alma Theresa Harris that a local voodoo priest cured a woman with her condition. Alma drew her a map to the "Home Fort" where a local voodoo ceremony would take place.

In an unsettling nighttime scene, Betsy took her patient, without permission, on a haunting, dream-like walk through billowing cane fields to the ceremony. She had to pass animal sacrifices along the way. As she went through a crossroads, there was the abrupt and shocking appearance in the darkness of a huge, eerie, bug-eyed and towering zombie-like guard Carre Four Darby Jones.

A major plot twist occurred next - Betsy entered a shack to consult with the voodoo witch doctor priestess, and discovered it was the mother of the family, Mrs. Rand had discovered that her sons had fought over Jessica, Paul's wife, and threatened to break up the family, she had put a zombie curse on her. In the conclusion, a voodoo doll and magic was used by a shaman to cause the death of Jessica.

In a trance, Wesley carried her body to the ocean where they both drowned. Paul confessed to Betsy that he would take her away from the island. Jane Eyre , 96 minutes, D: Robert Stevenson Made a decade earlier by the poverty-row studio of Monogram, Jane Eyre - the first talking version of Charlotte Bronte's classic romantic story set in Victorian times.

This 40s version faithfully adapted Bronte's tale with typical Gothic elements, a brooding atmosphere, and Bernard Herrmann's rich score. Reed Agnes Moorehead of Gateshead Hall. Arrangements were made for her to attend a boarding school named Lowood Institution, a charitable facility led by the harsh and self-righteous headmaster, Reverend Henry Brocklehurst Henry Daniell , where she befriended another student named Helen Burns Elizabeth Taylor in an early uncredited role.

At the age of 20, she was hired as the governess for a young girl named Adele Margaret O'Brien - the daughter of a wealthy Yorkshire Englishman. The huge mansion set on the bleak-looking moors of Yorkshire was called Thornfield Hall, and was run by housekeeper Mrs.

Eventually, she met the darkly moody and hot-tempered owner, Edward Rochester Orson Welles , and gradually was drawn into the mystery and dark secrets of Thornfield Hall - centering around a mysterious seamstress named Grace Poole Ethel Griffies who lived upstairs.

The wedding ceremony was abruptly interrupted when an attorney contested the marriage - Rochester could not marry because he was still married to crazed, mentally ill spouse Bertha, who was guarded by Grace Poole. Jane was forced to depart from Thornfield, but returned after the death of her aunt to discover a burned-down Thornfield mansion. It was set ablaze by Bertha, who jumped from the roof and died. Edward was also severely disabled, and left crippled and blind when the interior staircase collapsed on him.

Jane remained and began to establish a relationship with Edward, and they married. His sight miraculously began to return after the birth of their son. Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger Powell and Pressburger's satirical character study was a controversial wartime film that angered Winston Churchill for its portrait of a 'fuddy-duddy' 40 year career soldier, in the character of rotund Clive Candy Roger Livesey.

Although completed in , this film was not released for showing in the US until , because it was banned for export from Britain due to its critical portrayal of staid British patriotism. He still maintained outdated notions about how to be a gentlemanly soldier and conduct war by following the rules, unable to adapt to the methods and realities of modern warfare.

During the course of his life, dedicated to the king and his country through changing times, he also met and loved three women: Madame Curie , minutes, D: Miniver , in that it again paired Greer Garson and Walter Pidgeon it was their third of eight movies together, after Blossoms in the Dust and their film. Aldous Huxley's screenplay was adapted from the book Madame Curie: It was a dramatic historical film biography of the famous pioneering scientists, the husband and wife team of the Nobel Prize-winning Curies, who discovered radium.

It opened in the s with the awkward but endearing love story concerning the famous couple, shy physicist and avowed bachelor Pierre Curie Walter Pidgeon and his brilliant, determined Polish student Marie Sklodowska Greer Garson.

Their working partnership and marriage to pursue their "common scientific dream" overcame obstacles and ridicule, and they succeeded after a tedious, five-year experimental study in discovering a new and elusive radioactive element, radium. In the tragic conclusion, Pierre was run over by a horse-drawn carriage and died. Twenty five years later, continuing-researcher Marie lectured at the Sorbonne, declaring science "the clear light of truth," and advising her audience to "take the torch of knowledge and build the palace of the future.

Leslie Arliss This was the first of the quintessential Gainsborough Pictures costume melodramas, based upon the novel of the same name by Lady Eleanor Smith, with the themes of jealousy, doomed love and the elusive search for true love within a three-way love triangle.

The psychological drama was told as a flashback by two strangers who met and realized that they were related descendants. The story revealed the fates of three characters - the first two met as students at a boarding school and established a friendship: Clarissa had a loveless marriage to 3 the handsome but cruel, decadent and hedonistic "Man in Grey" - nobleman Marquis Lord Rohan James Mason. Clarissa became only a "brood sow" to produce children for her husband.

An impoverished and bitter Hesther went on to become a traveling Shakespearean play actress, and soon schemed to enter the Rohan household as a governess for the Rohan's young son, while she engaged in an affair with Lord Rohan. At the same time although away from the country estate , Clarissa had an affair with one of the Shakespearean actors in Hesther's troupe, a rogue named Peter Rokeby Stewart Granger , while Hesther plotted to take her place as Rohan's wife. This was facilitated after Clarissa caught a fever watching Rokeby's ship depart in the rain, and Hesther insured her death by drugging her and causing her to catch deathly pneumonia.

When the truth was revealed to Lord Rohan about his wife's murder, he went into a rage and beat his new fiancee Hesther to death. The More the Merrier , minutes, D: George Stevens A terrific war-time romantic comedy with excellent performances and an effervescent flair. See, for example, Contesting Psychiatry Copies of articles about the movement and its history. Some of which are listed in the leaflets and downloads section. Others - for example, Mark Cresswell on the self-harm movement - are listed separately.

Copies of documents from the movement's history. See libraries - especially the Anne Plumb Collection Records of where papers, books and pamphlets are preserved. A reading list A Quiz Demands - What have we achieved? Where have We come From? She was the daughter of John Brunham, sometimes mayor of Lynn, in Norfolk. She married John Kempe, who became a town official in They had fourteen or more children at least one of whom a son survived into adulthood.

The USA paperback left of her medieval story has been sub-titled "autobiography of the madwoman of God" A chapter by chapter analysis of the book is available on the mapping Margery Kempe website about Margery Kempe had a child and went "out of her mind" for about eight months. Thomas Moore and the beating of the frenzied heretic In his apology , Moore explains which heretics he had ordered to be beaten whilst Lord Chancellor October - May And albeit that he had therefore been put up in Bedlam , and afterward by beating and correction gathered his remembrance to him, and began to come again to himself, being thereupon set at liberty, and walking about abroad, his old fancies began to fall again in his head.

And I was from divers good holy places advertised, that he used in his wandering about to come into the church, and there make many mad toys and trifles, to the trouble of good people in the divine service, and specially would he be most busy in the time of most silence, while the priest was at the secrets of the mass about the elevation.

Whereupon I, being advertised of these pageants, and being sent unto and required by very devout religious folk, to take some other order with him, caused him as he came wandering by my door, to be taken by the constables, and bounden to a tree in the street before the whole town, and there they striped him with rods therefor till he waxed weary, and somewhat longer.

And it appeared well that his remembrance was good enough, save that it went about in grazing till it was beaten home. For he could then very well rehearse his faults himself, and promise to do afterward as well. And verily, God be thanked, I hear none harm of him now. Known examples of collective action are exceedingly rare before the 19th century. The primary sources for this see below are ambiguous. Whilst it is possible to read them as evidence of collective action by patients, they can also be read as evidence of complaints by others being investigated.

By contrast, the Alleged Lunatics Friend Society , founded in , is well documented. The "court books" refers to the Bethlem Court of Governors Minutes.

The pact is said to include the words "I, Christoph Haizmann, subscribe myself to this Lord as his bounden son till the ninth year. Shortly afterwards he confessed to a pact with the devil made nine years before. The picture of the first meeting with the devil, a genial genleman walking his dog, is taken from a three part Triptych thanksgiving painting by Haizmann which shows the exorcism of the devil in the centre.

James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw's life narrative. Solicitors to Mr Richard Paternoster. John Clare's The Nightingale. It was unanimously resolved: That the Society will receive applications from persons complaining of being unjustly treated, or from their friends, aid them in obtaining legal advice, and otherwise assist and afford them all proper protection.

That the Society will endeavour to procure a reform in the laws and treatment affecting the arrest, detention, and release of persons treated as of unsound mind. Henry Bruen, MP - R. Sharman Crawford , Esq. Ridley Colborne, MP - T. Slingsby Duncombe , Esq. Lubbock , Bart, - S. Amongst the most painful of these circumstances was the constant sight of heavy bars to my window, which in my extremely nervous state even produced a sensation of physical pain to the visual organs.

I observed the bars to the windows in this Asylum are peculiarly massive-and they remind me so much of the horrors of my former situation, that it is with a considerable effort, that I am not persuaded by my feelings from fulfilling my intentions, when I come to the gate of the Asylum.

I think the Committee might safely remove these bars, and substitute windows with small sashes in iron frames-or adopt in some cases, the plan pursued in many private asylums, of having Venetian blinds to the windows.

This would give a more cheerful appearance to the Hospital outside, and relieve in a greater degree than can be conceived by those who have never secluded under such circumstances, its heartsick inhabitants. He died in Shotts, Lanarkshire in , aged One of Vincent van Gogh 's early drawings of an old man with his head in his hands. This one has the title "worn out". Now in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam].

The drawing is one of a series of studies of Adrianus Jacobus Zuyderland pensioner on which Van Gogh commented: Charlotte Mew The sisters' kiss - both sublime and ghastly - A page of the gospel which the priest never read.

This pencil picture depicting one of the images was drawn about It is catalogued as "witch with eagle, crocodile and cornucopia". With her husband, Stephanie created a fantasy world called Thessyros desired? The story is told in The Starlight Years: This statement is written by a patient and signed by patients. The undersigned patients were present when the Chief Attendant replyed saying he did not believe it.

Mr Hully would not do such a thing. Also informed him to mind his own business. Eric Irwin's life narrative. Willesdon from - Islington - Bromley - Cane Hill? Exact date from death registration]. His brother John Ritchie was born about By the time Thomas arrived, his father was drinking heavily. This led to the family separating: John with his father and Thomas with his mother and a Roman Catholic aunt. The aunt pressured him to take technical rather than artistic subjects, but he did not last long studying engineering at the Royal Technical College 18 in Thomas came to London in the early s and "drifted into photography".

Arrested for drink driving in Aylesbury, he served three months in prison. In he went to Ireland, living in Belfast where he had a photography shop and Dublin. About this time he became dependent on mood changing drugs. He moved back to England, establishing a photography business in Brighton.

In January he began a three months sentence in Brixton for drink driving, during which his photography equipment and business books were stolen from his flat and dormobile in Brighton. He returned to Lanark and became a voluntary patient in Hartwoodhill Hospital.

Court sent him to Crichton , Barlinnie Prison, and then Hartwood in As a result, the Scottish Mental Welfare Commissioners visited Hartwood and "several personal grievances have been redressed". The first public annoucement that he had started a Scottish Union of Mental Patients came in the undergroung newspaper Ink on The article reproduced te full text of Tommy's paper "Advantages of patients in mental hospitals having their own fully democratic and autonomous national association or union".

Tommy used the Ink article to publicise the union in Hartwood and secured support from the Scottish Council for Civil Liberties and another article in The Glasgow Herald on He talked to th SSCL about continuing the work in Scotland, made a final visit to his colleague Bill Ferguson in Gartnavel and on the way to London decided to see if he could sell his story to the Daily Mirror.

From to , he was a founder tenant of MPU house in Woodford. See - her autobiography - preservation of archives - Movements in the s - 5. This triggered People Not Psychiatry and he published a book with that name in which began "all writing is about oneself". He set up a "Growth Centre" that he called "Community".

He and his commuity wandered from Switzeralnd to Italy, to France, and to Germany. He now operate under the trade name "OneLife". See Friends of St Clements - F. June Sheila Anne Beskine born in Croydon. She wrote poems working with other Art therapists, including Edward Adamson.

Sheila thinks across categories, using pictures, objects, poems and associations. She has inspired may discussions of Art at Survivor History Group meetings. His mother maiden name Scott was of Jamaican and English descent. His father was Barbadian. His mother had become the first black nurse in England? He was evacuated to Yorkshire and later sent to Glasgow.

He returned to London aged seven? David Kessel photographed by Natalie Fonnesu about Her father was a professional artist specialising in paintings of garden flowers in vases to hang in one's sitting room. He died in Folkestone, aged 75, when Cherry was only ten years old. Her older sister born was called Myrtle Ellen, so her parents liked beautiful plant names and, hopefully, cherished their new daugter.

She also appears to have been named from "Cupid and Cherry", pictured in her cousin 's book of poems and plates, published privately in , and publicly in the year she was born, and this has more sinister tones.

Nelsy, author of Standing up to madness - An autobiography , born in Bogota, the capital of Colombia. See - - - - - - - She moved to London in He has written two plays about the mental health system and is an active member of Survivors Poetry. Martha Robinson poetry prize External link to staff profile at Birmingham University - named Suresearch in - Co-authored Two Decades of Change in - died 5. Although I meant it, I hardly thought I would ever get the opportunity to do so" Child of a System p.

Spring Fabian Tompsett born? Brentwood School about to It had offset litho A3 and A4 and later A2 , screen printing and 35mm darkroom facilities. In he left th politcal group Class War French Wikipedia. The struggle inside January Peter Whitehead in solitary confinement at Rampton "I decided I was being wrongfully shut away, because I knew I wasn't mentally defective, and in spite of what had happened at Farmfield , I was not violent.

I knew that I must go on believing this, and go on hoping that one day I would be set free. No matter how long I was imprisoned in Rampton, I was determined never to give up". Copyright Pathe News not used. January "Put Away", was the first programme of The Hurt Mind , the first British television series about mental illness. Much of it came from inside Warlingham Park Hospital , where the presenter, Christopher Mayhew , spent a few days "to get the feel of the place".

No faces of patients were shown - Some individuals were pictured from the neck down, a group of patients were interviewed around a table without showing faces, one or more individuals were interviewed back to camera. Gerald describes how the war drove him to alcoholism Sidney describes how he became "persecuted by a wizard and became possessed by a familiar" Mary, a teacher, tells of her "irrational fears" and how her parents found it "difficult to understand" Mary also speaks for Marcia, a silent young woman; Mary says that Marcia "can't do anything without being told" A woman explains that peculiar thoughts were put into her head by someone other than herself, how she had hallucinations of red devils and religious figures.

A young male patient speaks of his aversion to close proximity to other people, inordinate concerns about cleanliness, and a phobia about dirt and infections A female patient talks about how she suffered deep depression after childbirth, her indecisiveness, her mistreatment of husband and child and unhappy childhood.

The town he was selected to breath in was Bethnal Green, this place is a small town, in a massive city called London, or help me, I can't see the fucking sky! In the neurosis unit at "Northtown" a psychiatrist tried to organise group therapy by meetings which included "a patients' committee, and a patients' general meeting" "The patients' committee was stopped because it apparently ran a great deal too well.

It developed a group entity of its own which became set in opposition against the staff - as one doctor said, 'It was at us the whole time, agitating'" "The patients' general meeting collapsed because the doctors felt the verbalisation level was too low for it to have any real value. A few patients from the patients' committee dominated it. The rest could not take any active part in it, and tended to sit passively.

Zyra gazes at the stars from his website. He went to Boston Grammar School between and where he was known as the "professor". Graduated in Computer Science from the University of Manchester in About he established Felix Computers in Boston.

This included open access to his Free Association Machine. Eventually he opted for the internet and made his fortune from with zyra. He died in Panama in October aged See archive of website. Nevertheless, it is very important that the patients' own viewpoint should not be lost among the welter of administrative and statistical considerations, and we were fortunate in that a number of patients, meeting us in the ward and in the corridors, took a considerable interest in the project.

They contributed observations and anecdotes from their own experience, and these were carefully checked by reference to medical or nursing staff, or to records. We are grateful to these patients - many of whom are now back in their own homes, and living normal lives at the time of writing - for a constant reminder of the human values which underlie this or any other piece of research into mental illness.

Dated , referring to research between June and June Jones and Sidebotham , p. About Daniel Iga Mwesigwa born in Uganda. As a young man 19 when he died "he was a popular guy in South London helping to run the Mafia Sound System. He was a witty and good-natured youth - the reason for his nickname 'Cartoon'". See arrest and death - Inquest file - About Graham Morgan born - He became a mental health activist in the s in Sheffield after witnessing the harsh and often undignified treatment of people with a mental illness.

He initially became a volunteer with an organization helping young people live in the community. After this he helped set up a a user run drop in centre McMurphys for young people in Sheffield. He was a Director of McMurphys. Moved to Edinburgh about where he quickly became involved in a campaigning group. He then lived largely in hostels. Murdered Jonathan Zito After an insecure childhood in foster homes and institutions he became homeless.

With counselling and social work help he was rehoused and became a pioneer of "health through history", which explores recovering yourself through knowing who you are and who you relate to. Feeding the five thousand by Mary Barnes is the earliest in the Glasgow collection of her work.

Stretched on the wall above my bed, a mattress on the floor, it was about seven feet across and six feet high" Mary Barnes, p. It was run on the lines of Alcoholics Anonymous - whose open meetings Tessa attended, "to give me the right ideas". The group was the first of its kind in Cork. At least one doctor and a dentist used to send their nervous patients to the group. Sadly, it was an entertainment program, and not at all respectful towards us.

Participants were asked about their specific phobias, and then unexpectedly presented with the object of their fear, which of course terrified them - I found this disgraceful" Tessa Redmond Recovery Groups now Grow in Ireland started in Declaration of a summer of love. The first edition of Drop Out by Robin Farquharson was published in Its cover had this cartoon of Robin.

In the preface dated When I'm up, I have no judgement, but fantastic drive; when I'm down, I have judgement, but no drive at all. In between I pass for normal well enough. It must have been a terrible blow for Robin to be rejected by his own tribe and although he did not bear a permanent grudge, I understand now he would rather anything than fall into the hands of the men in white coats.

I heard he put up a good fight when they cornered him and about ten men were needed to subdue him on this occasion, tho' on the grapevine the story may have growed a bit I dunnow. Three years later in Robin came to Bath He held the first meeting in Athea, Co. From there, groups formed throughout the country, especially in the areas of Limerick, Cork and Dublin. She came to London in and "decided to stay after discovering feminism" - See 9. The works on display listed in the catalogue were 1.

Back of the Cross - 3. Angel on the Verge of Hell. In the United Kingdom, the s saw the birth of several independent democratic organisations of mental patients, organised locally, but attempting to link together.

These unions formed inside and outside of mental hospitals. There were similar developments in several other countries, including Camada and the United States. In European countries other than Scotland and England, the patients movement appears to have been generated by psychiatrists sometimes called anti-psychiatrists.

In Scotland it was started by patients. In England, some professionals not psychiatrists were involved in a pilot group. But much research is needed in all countries because the names of psychiatrists and anti-psychiatrists often attract an attention that those of patients do not. Centerprise and the Mental Patients Union. January Raza Griffiths of Kindred Minds born. In the second year of a post-graduate thesis he was forced to give up his studies by a "life threatening breakdown" See survivors CV 7.

He has worked as a freelance journalist since Here I worked alongside people from the Caribbean and got to understand how hard these people worked, thereby getting away from the myth I grew up with, that these people were lazy and scrounging of the Welfare State.

During this period I also experienced depression and started taking tranquillisers, which later led on to a dependence on anti-depressants and seeing psychiatrists on a regular basis.

This later led to a breakdown and hospitalisation. Through this I learnt what it was like to be prejudiced against and stigmatised. Her parents had come to London from Montserrat and Jamaica. She was the first of their four children. She began her career as a sales clerk in , first selling bathrooms in the City of London and then with Dudley Stationers now defunct in Bow.

By March , Thomas Ritchie had secured the support of the Scottish Council for Civil Liberties for the concept of a union of mental patients. Edgar Prais and James J. The Journal was started two weeks after The Herald published an article on Moreover we have had no General meeting yet. He was not sure on this till he consulted experts. Journal page eight SUMP membership records page one below were kept at the back of the journal.

Who better to advise how to make the struggle for sanity easier than the people who have been through the experience of modern madness and survived it? It became the Westfield Association. Refusing treatment, cruelty to patients, clothes grants, fighting against being discriminated against in jobs Alice ill treated by nurses Alan Hartman elected chairman.. Psychiatric wings in both the German and Hackney Hospital are affected.

The MPU aims to bring about a better deal for patients in mental hospitals, and improved status. Mr Andrew Roberts, of the Hackney branch, claims that several patients in Hackney Hospital psychiatric wing had spoken of better treatment by staff since the branch was recognised on July Andrew Voyce "Paranoid schizophrenia since - freed from asylum life by Mrs Thatcher's community care - MA in social and public policy - cartoon slide show artist".

The reply was dated I was just getting my breath back, patient;y waiting requested explanation from D. The Neurological Unit at Southampton later commented "This poor girl will never achieve an independent life". Neuropsychiatry News, January She became a campaigner for disability rights and later for mental health rights.

Dunffermline Seniors, the first of the Express Groups Fife started. It drew on his Winterton interviews and led to schizophrenia and human value in The conference was disrupted by conflicts between radical and other feminists. Helen Shoenberg was the only patient participating. Mary Nettle married in I ended up in St Bernard's , a horrible Victorian asylum for three months. I had become a user of the mental health system and been given the label of manic depression.

This had, as you can imagine, a profound effect on my life and of those close to me. Treatment was totally drug oriented". Ken Lumb and Anne Plumb married in Anne describes to as "Ken Lumb's early years of activism" marked by long drawn out campaigns that did not achieve the main objectives, or only on a small scale, but which "engendered a solidarity and an agenda that did not go away".

These included campaigns against the withdrawl of the invalid tricycle, ill thought out pedestriastion schemes, buiding of Young Disabled Units, action for adapted housing and integrated care support, accessible environments and public transport "and so on". Observations, analysis and proposals for reform , the second volume of A Human Condition , published by Mind.

It's Jubilee Bank Holiday Monday, 6. In Ireland who we are and what we are doing shows up in far starker contrast". It grew out of discussions at Centerprise about how to cope with customers with mental health problems. For the ex-Hackney MPU members who ran it, it grew out of a desire to create a dialogue between people of divergent views.

The principle was that people could talk without agreeing and without compromising the purity of their respective principles. Psychiatrists, for example, could debate with anti-psychiatrists, and mental patients talk to mental health workers, on equal terms.

Did you know any of the people involved in the Manchester MPU? Unfortunately, by the time I got the confidence to contact them the groups was folding. The contacts list includes "Crisis Centre" " - "Anorexic Aid: Hartley, 1 Pool End Cl. From May , the mental patients' movement in the United Kingdom developed in a radically different political climate. This was not only due to the change of government, but also to new attitudes to mental patients amongst local authorities, voluntary groups and others attempting to defend alternative political views or threatened services.

The patient as consumer who should be listened to took a decade to enter government policy Griffiths Report In the meantime, our language had changed. We were no longer mental patients uniting , but survivors or users engaged in a diversity of speaking out - advocacy and user involvement.

Half way through the decade, mental health users began to think about being empowered. People First , the movement of people with a learning difficulty, developed a strong autonomous existence in the United Kingdom see and and the survivors' movement, unlike mental patients union see MPU Declaration and Mind Out 2 , developed separately. Attention to mental distress in old age involved an alliance of patients, carers and professionals.

November - 42nd Street founded in Manchester. A community mental health project for young people aged between years, living in Manchester. Alistair Cox established 42nd Street and directed it for over 20 years. In , 42nd Street published Reflected images Self portraits of distress: By it was funded by the Urban Aid Programme. Published Principles into Practice.

A developmental study of a community health service. Tried, with limited success, to make its management structure accessible to young people in the belief that consumers of a service, should, if they wish to, participate in the decision making process.

Helen Spandler was based there as a research worker from August to August The report on her research Who's Hurting Who? Young people, self-harm and suicide was published in Values and dilemmas of mental health work with young people.

Published in association with 42nd Street. I might have found booklets in both places. The Importance of Being Frank. I seem to recall that David Lynes was the 'boss' at North West Fellowship and was a very energetic figure.

I think there was considerable competition between the Fellowship, based in Warrington, and North West Mind , based in Preston. I went to a meeting of the Oldham group of the NSF.

It was difficult to sit through, as it was a carer support group. People present spent the evening comparing notes on the difficulties caused them by their relatives with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. I do not think they considered that the new member might have a diagnosis of his own. Eventually Mind and the Fellowship did find a way to collaborate and then formed a quite considerable alliance. She had "spent months in solitary confinement and on the psychiatric wing" because of her "demands for Black reading material and for respect and recognition of her Blcak culture and religion" Hackney Peoples Press March The picture is by Abena.

The article reviews three "recent cases" that "provide distressing evidence" that Rastafarian religious beliefs were being dianosed as schizophrenia. The other two being Steven Thompson and Richard Campbell. International Year for Disabled People "The United Nations International Year of Disabled People in gave the opportunity for disabled people to find the funding to set up groups and organisations of disabled people.

The decade saw the rise of the campaign for Anti-Discrimination legislation, the call for buildings and the environment to be made more accessible to disabled people, and also disabled people supporting other campaigns against oppression.

She met with key disabled people across Greater Manchester and was able to introduce them to each other, so that they could share their ideas. Wouter van de Graaf, Jet Ibiza and Jet Vesseur met at the end of the s, when they were active in the crazies movement. January Last number of Gekkenkrant. Gek'ooit was the successor to Gekkenkrant. Gek'ooit appears to be a play on words: Gek ooit is crazy ever. Gek kooi is a crazy cage, and the magazine was also known as caged.

See Netherlands Also see interview with Wouter van de Graaf , who illustrated it. Wouter van de Graaf: See World Congress Richard Campbell's death was the first death of a black mental patient. Both were in In July Black Mental Health UK published a list of "fatalities of mental health service users from UK's african caribbean communities" begining in Sometime in , a triumphant Barbara Taylor collapsed in exhaustion after attending the oral examination for her thesis The feminist theory and practice of the Owenite socialist movement in Britain, She entered a course of psychoanalysis that lasted twent-two years.

I had been in analysis for a couple of months, talking about it incessantly. Patients prepared criticism of the parts of new Mental Health Bill that seemed to undermine voluntary treatment and Mind 's financial crisis saw the closure of Mind Out and the end of MIND Information Bulletin in the form we knew it.

Judi then went on to Iceland. How did you get involved in doing international work? Oh, it was just something that kind of grew.

I got invited to And I got invited to a professional meeting in England. So I got to meet some of the ex- patients from there. And somebody else invited me to Australia. It just kind of happened. And I never thought I'd be the kind of person who got to travel abroad and stuff, and it was just real exciting and I loved it.

October Frank Bangay's Solidarity Poster. This was sold as A4 photocopied sheets. It has been sold and given a way in various formats since. The last stanza is "We cried together last night, but our tears were in solidarity with the sadness in the world, and through our solidarity through our tears we found strength" Another image and words leaflet self-published at this time was "Woman on a Park Bench with Birds". Six People Speak Out" in March From December to August Nikki wrote a regular feature in More Hackney about her "journey to change minds".

She was a book in the human library that people could speak to. Someone who spoke to her offered her paid employment and "in the space of a few weeks, I went from being a book titled 'Clinically Depressed and Unemployed', to being a volunteer team administrator for the Barnet Improving Access to Psychological Therapies team". She also became a full time student for three years and took a second job as Health and Well-being Coordinator for the Healthy Conversations Project, as well as getting married.

Follow her on Twitter. Emergence of the allies Stephen Ticktin , in , says that when Survivors Speak Out was set up after "the impetus, ironically enough, came once again from a professional". The "once again" appears to refer to his own impetus in establishing British Network of Alternatives to Psychiatry.

Later in the article he says that "for me the most exciting venture" was the establishment of the Asylum magazine, whose management, he says "is at present small and too top heavy with professionals". Professionals and non-users who developed the user-movement in these years acquired the name "allies".

Rick Hennelly , page , refers to these as "earlier descriptions of the service and the tensions between ideology and practice" From beside the Chesterfield Community Centre in Tontine Road one can look up at the famous bent spire.

The centre houses a large number of projects, one of which was a North Derbyshire Mental Health Services day centre for people becoming reestablished in the community.

In the mids this became run on increasingly democratic lines and was known as the Contact Support Group [first half of ] - Ivy Buckland from the centre was the first Survivors Speak Out Treasurer. Ernie Morris , another user, produced the first Survivors Speak Out newsletter. Rick Hennelly, a social worker at the centre was very active in the formation of Survivors Speak Out.

It contains no provision for users to be the only members, or a special, full category of member but refers to promoting a 'strong consumer voice'. Its members are people who use or have used the Mental Health services and live or work in the Borough. Associate Members are people or organisations who for some reason have an interest in the Mental Health Services provided in the Borough and support the objectives of CMHC.

See Beyond Diagnosis - - February - - June In the United Kingdom, the mid s saw a revitalisation of locally organised democratic organisations of mental patients, linked together in networks. Aware "formed in by a group of interested patients, relatives and mental health professionals, whose aims are to assist that section of the population whoses lives are directly affected by depression". There have been considerable advances in techniques designed to enable and encourage mentally ill or handicapped people to speak for themselves But there is a long way to go.

Services are still mainly designed by providers and not users, whether families or clients, and in response to blueprints rather than in answer to demand. Matching the service to the consumer rather than vice versa should be the one central aim of community care in the future. We recommend that all agencies responsible ensure that plans for services are devised with as well as for mentally disabled people and their families " Consumer view paragraph Many of the less severely disable are able to express their needs and wishes most articulately, as the Committee saw and heard on visits.

For those unable to express their own wishes, some form of advocacy may be very helpful. We also recommend that efforts be made to facilitate the participation of individual mentally disabled people in the planning and management of services [Bold in original.

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