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Great Seal Cold War: U-2 Incident Cold War: Cray Supercomputers Computer Development: Harvest Tape Drive Computer Development: American Black Chamber World War 1: Radio Intercept Site World War 1: Zimmermann Telegram World War 2: Code Talkers World War 2: The National Cryptologic Museum acquired this cipher device from a West Virginian antique dealer, who found it in a home near Monticello. Thomas Jefferson described a similar device for the English language in his writings, and it is sometimes referred to as the "Jefferson Cipher Wheel.
Jefferson's design was probably based upon an unnamed earlier device. The device uses scrambled alphabets on the edges of each wheel to cipher a message.
By aligning the plain text letters in one row, any other row can be selected as the cipher text. The wheels are individually numbered and can be placed on the spindle in any prearranged order. This particular artifact is thought to be the oldest extant true cipher device in the world. It was apparently for use with the French language, the world's diplomatic language used through World War I. This exhibit of the experience of African-Americans at NSA and its predecessor organization mirrors the African-American experience in the United States and the federal government in the latter half of the twentieth century.
The first African-American hired by the Army Security Agency, and who later made the transition to the Armed Forces Security Agency, worked first in a segregated office. Senior supervisors were white. They performed menial tasks not wanted by whites. In the s, African-Americans began to move into the mainstream workforce.
The segregated office was abolished and more African-Americans received supervisory positions. This exhibit celebrates the important role that cryptology played during the American Civil War. During America's first century, secret writing - cryptography - figured in many instances in which lives and fortunes were at stake and confidentiality was desired.
Until nearly the middle of the 19th century, large armies moved over an extensive battlefield unassisted by any special technology to aid long distance communications or even tactical communications.
In , Samuel F. Morse successfully tested his improved electromagnetic telegraph between Washington and Baltimore. At the time of the American Civil War, both sides began encrypting high-level messages to be transmitted on the telegraph. Both sides established cipher bureaus in their respective capitals to work on enemy encrypted messages, one of the early examples of a centralized intelligence activity in the United States.
This star flag, displayed in the Museum, is a rare item. This flag is only one of two known to exist today in which all five points have been adorned with battles. This special flag was awarded only to Signal Corps officers who distinguished themselves in combat.
In the late s, Albert J. Myer, an Army doctor, invented a method of communication using line-of-sight signal flags. Using various positions of the flag to represent letters of the alphabet, soldiers would wave them to send messages to other units.
Both Union and Confederate soldiers became proficient in the Myers' system, known as wigwag. Soldiers had to be in an elevated location to be seen. Since the system is visual, messages could be intercepted and this forced encryption. Although entitled Cipher for Telegraphic Correspondence, this book is actually a code book. It was used by Union General Joseph Hooker's code clerk and is one of the few books whose provenance is known. Important names, places, and military terms have two different code names.
A code changes a word or phrase into a different word, phrase, or number group; a cipher substitutes each individual letter for a different letter, number, or symbol. This exhibit showcases how the Revolutionary Army leveraged cryptology during the war. America's independence was achieved with the help of codes, ciphers, invisible ink, visual communications, and hidden messages.
These techniques, practiced by both the Colonists and the British, protected communications vital to the commanders. They disguised information needed to plan strategy, report the enemy's capabilities, and provide warnings. Solving and reading the enemy's secret messages also proved critical.
Not only did it reveal the enemy's intentions, but a few even revealed American traitors. This exhibit recounts the history of the Soviets' shooting down an American reconnaissance aircraft on September 2, It was supposed to fly a "race track" pattern between the Turkish cities of Trabzon and Van essentially parallel to the Armenian border. Initially, the Soviets denied shooting down the aircraft, claiming the plane and its 17 crew members "fell" into their territory.
It was not until the end of the Cold War that they released previously classified documents indicating that all 17 U. An Air Force C was refurbished and painted to match the markings of the down aircraft, The plane was one of many different types of aircraft used by the Army to conduct its reconnaissance missions.
Most of the missions were in support of tactical operations conducting short- and medium-range direction finding and signals intelligence. The RU-8D significantly advanced the electronic collection mission with its onboard navigation system and improved antennas. The GRAB satellites had a dual mission. The unclassified mission was to gather solar radiation data. The secret mission gathered radar pulses within a specific bandwidth from Soviet equipment.
The data was then downloaded to ground stations, recorded on magnetic tape, and couriered to the NRL, whose engineers had designed and built GRAB. Based on the information NSA received, analysts determined that the Soviets had radars that supported the capability to destroy ballistic missiles.
It hung in the ambassador's Moscow residential office until when the State Department discovered that it was 'bugged. They shot radio waves from a van parked outside into the ambassador's office and could then detect the changes of the microphone's diaphragm inside the resonant cavity. When Soviets turned off the radio waves it was virtually impossible to detect the hidden 'bug. The replica on display in the museum was molded from the original after it came to NSA for testing. The exhibit can be opened to reveal a copy of the microphone and the resonant cavity inside.
It was given to the museum by the Armed Forces Museum in Moscow where the plane's wreckage is exhibited. Although he parachuted to safety, Powers and his plane wreckage were captured. The international turmoil resulted in the cancellation of a summit meeting scheduled between President Eisenhower and the premier. The museum displays the flag that flew at the time of the attack of the U. Cruising 25 miles off the Gaza coast, it was attacked by Israeli fighters and torpedo boats at 2 o'clock on a clear and sunny afternoon.
There was no apparent provocation, and the reason for the attack has never been fully resolved, although Israel described it as an identification error and sent restitution for the damage and loss of life. The loss of 34 men was the largest loss of life in a single event in American cryptologic history. It occurred, ironically, during a war in which the United States was not a participant.
The museum displays the history of the attack of the U. Following the war between the two Koreas in the 's, the United States continued to support South Korea. In an effort to gather intelligence about North Korea's intentions, the U.
Navy began operational cruises with AGER ships outfitted with reconnaissance equipment. On January 23, , while in international waters off the Korean coast, the North Koreans attacked the Pueblo. One man was killed while destroying cryptologic materials and three men were wounded. The 82 crewmen were held for eleven months before being released. The ship remains in North Korea to this day and it represented the largest single loss of such sensitive material.
It compromised a wide range of cryptologic and classified documents and equipment. All of the released documents are available for review at the Museum Library and some significant messages are part of museum displays.
In February , the U. The Rosenbergs case was controversial case, due in part to the accusation and conviction of Ethel Rosenberg. At least one message shows that Ethel may have known about her husband's activities. Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, was also involved, selling details about the atomic bomb project in Los Alamos where he worked. It was David's testimony against his sister and brother-in-law that led to the conviction of the Rosenbergs for conspiracy to commit espionage.
On exhibit in the museum are two Cray supercomputers. NSA has been a leader in computer development throughout its history. Some of the earliest supercomputers were designed and built specifically for the National Security Agency.
It was in operation from to and was arguably the most powerful computer in the world when it was delivered. The second generation Cray, the YMP, replaced the older version in In most personal computers held only 16 million bytes. The YMP used vector processing, a very powerful form of overlapping, parallel processing to conduct 2.
The YMP was decommissioned and went on display at the museum in This museum displays one of NSA's earliest work with super computers. IBM built a new, state-of-the-art second-generation general-purpose processor.
The artist has so far given two clues to this passage. The main part of the sculpture is located in the northwest corner of the New Headquarters Building courtyard, outside of the Agency's cafeteria. The sculpture comprises four large copper plates with other elements consisting of water, wood, plants, red and green granite , white quartz , and petrified wood. The most prominent feature is a large vertical S-shaped copper screen resembling a scroll or a piece of paper emerging from a computer printer, half of which consists of encrypted text.
The characters are all found within the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet , along with question marks, and are cut out of the copper plates. The main sculpture contains four separate enigmatic messages, three of which have been deciphered. In addition to the main part of the sculpture, Jim Sanborn also placed other pieces of art at the CIA grounds, such as several large granite slabs with sandwiched copper sheets outside the entrance to the New Headquarters Building.
Several morse code messages are found on these copper sheets, and one of the stone slabs has an engraving of a compass rose pointing to a lodestone. Other elements of Sanborn's installation include a landscaped garden area, a fish pond with opposing wooden benches, a reflecting pool , and other pieces of stone including a triangle shaped black stone slab.
The name Kryptos comes from the ancient Greek word for "hidden", and the theme of the sculpture is "Intelligence Gathering". The ciphertext on the left-hand side of the sculpture as seen from the courtyard of the main sculpture contains characters in total: In April , however, Sanborn released information stating that a letter was omitted from this side of Kryptos "for aesthetic reasons, to keep the sculpture visually balanced".
There are also three misspelled words in the plaintext of the deciphered first three passages, which Sanborn has said was intentional [ citation needed ] [ dubious — discuss ] , and three letters YAR near the beginning of the bottom half of the left side are the only characters on the sculpture in superscript.
Bauer, Link and Molle  suggest that this may be a reference to the Hill cipher as an encryption method for the fourth passage of the sculpture. Sanborn has revealed that the sculpture contains a riddle within a riddle, which will be solvable only after the four encrypted passages have been deciphered. He has given conflicting information about the sculpture's answer, saying at one time that he gave the complete solution to the then-CIA director William Webster during the dedication ceremony; but later, he also said that he had not given Webster the entire solution.
He did, however, confirm that within the passage of the plaintext of the second message which reads "Who knows the exact location? Sanborn also confirmed that should he die before the entire sculpture becomes deciphered, there will be someone able to confirm the solution.
The first person to announce publicly that he had solved the first three passages was Jim Gillogly , a computer scientist from southern California , who deciphered these passages using a computer, and revealed his solutions in After Gillogly's announcement, the CIA revealed that their analyst David Stein also had solved the same passages in using pencil and paper techniques, although at the time of his solution the information was only disseminated within the intelligence community  and no public announcement was made until July The NSA also claimed that some of their employees had solved the same three passages, but would not reveal names or dates until March , when it was learned that an NSA team led by Ken Miller, along with Dennis McDaniels and two other unnamed individuals, had solved passages 1—3 in late The documents show that by June , a small group of NSA cryptanalysts had succeeded in solving the first three passages of the sculpture.
Sanborn had inadvertently omitted a letter S in the crypt text. The following are the solutions of passages 1—3 of the sculpture. On April 19, , Sanborn contacted an online community dedicated to the Kryptos puzzle to inform them that the accepted solution to passage 2 was incorrect. He said that he made an error in the sculpture by omitting an "X" used to separate sentences, for aesthetic reasons, and that the deciphered text that ended " The coordinates mentioned in the plaintext: This is a paraphrased quotation from Howard Carter 's account of the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun on November 26, , as described in his book The Tomb of Tutankhamun.
The question with which it ends is asked by Lord Carnarvon , to which Carter in the book famously replied "wonderful things". In the November 26, field notes, however, his reply was, "Yes, it is wonderful. No solution to Part 4 has been publicly acknowledged by either Jim Sanborn or Ed Scheidt to be correct. When commenting in about his error in passage 2, Sanborn said that the answers to the first three passages contain clues to the fourth passage.
This means it does not have a weakness, where a character could never be encrypted as itself, that was known to be inherent in the German Enigma machine. Sanborn further stated that in order to solve passage 4, "You'd better delve into that particular clock," but added, "There are several really interesting clocks in Berlin. After producing Kryptos he went on to make several other sculptures with codes and other types of writing, including one entitled Antipodes , which is at the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington, D.
The cipher on one side of Antipodes repeats the text from Kryptos. Much of the cipher on Antipodes ' other side is duplicated on Cyrillic Projector.
For previous versions… I have no idea. If you want this to be system-wide, you can use AutoHotkey instead. Even a serious geek is going to be pretty lost on how to troubleshoot a new tab repeatedly opening to a certain page every couple of minutes, if you bury that inside the task scheduler.
Just go in and create a new task, run through the wizard and pick the browser executable, plug the site name into the arguments box, and then set the schedule to repeat the task every 5 minutes. Nice and simple, but oh so fun! For extra fun, you could make the mouse pointers gigantic.
Once you press that key combo, their desktop will get flipped to the high contrast mode—you can press it again to go back to normal. The great thing is that even if their computer is locked, you can enable high contrast with the icon on the lower left corner.
The basic principle works one of a couple of ways:. The Best Tech Newsletter Anywhere. Join , subscribers and get a daily digest of news, comics, trivia, reviews, and more. Windows Mac iPhone Android. Smarthome Office Security Linux.
May 30, NSA surveillance powers lapse after Senate stalls 11 counterterror measures look likely to be revived in a matter of days. With no other. Feb 8, At NSA, it's an around-the-clock mission. And it is not getting any easier. The Agency is embarking on this comprehensive, integrated campaign. Mar 20, Using remote search, Mystic and Retro let NSA search through calls at a distance .