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It has an area of 9. The capital city is Washington, D. The country is divided administratively into 50 states and the Federal District of Columbia. The states are divided into counties. Since the USA has consisted of three, noncontiguous physiographic divisions—the coterminous states, Alaska, and the Hawaiian Islands—which vary in size, level of development, and population. They border Canada on the north, Mexico on the south, the Pacific Ocean on the west, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast.

Alaska occupies the northwestern part of North America and includes many islands, for example, the Aleutians. Historically the territory of the coterminous states has been divided into three principal regions: Possessions in the Pacific Ocean include Guam area, sq km; population, 96, , American Samoa area, sq km; population, 30, , and a number of smaller islands. The USA is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Its Constitution was drafted in by a constitutional convention held in Philadelphia.

Prior to the Articles of Confederation, adopted in , had functioned as a constitution. The Constitution is concisely worded, and many of its articles are general in nature. Hence, its interpretation, the duty of the Supreme Court, is vitally important.

A very complicated procedure has been set up for adding amendments to the Constitution. The amendments are proposed by Congress or by a constitutional convention convoked by Congress on the petition of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states.

An amendment has the force of law after it has been ratified by the legislatures or special conventions of three-fourths of the states. Since , 26 amendments have been adopted.

The first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were adopted in The amendments subsequently adopted are as follows:. Twelfth Amendment , establishing a procedure for electing the president, including the election of the president and vice-president by the House of Representatives if none of the candidates receives a majority of the electoral votes;.

Fourteenth Amendment , protecting the life, liberty, and property of citizens through due process of law and setting up a system for the apportionment of representatives in Congress;.

Seventeenth Amendment , establishing the procedure for senatorial elections, including the introduction of the popular election of senators;. Twentieth Amendment , establishing the date for the beginning of the terms of office of the president, vice-president, senators, and representatives;.

Twenty-second Amendment , prohibiting the same person from being elected president more than twice;. Twenty-third Amendment , granting the residents of Washington D. Twenty-fifth Amendment , establishing a procedure for filling in a vacancy in the office of the president or vice-president by confirmation of the Congress;.

A twenty-seventh amendment to the Constitution, granting equal rights to women, was proposed in but has not yet been ratified by enough states. The US Constitution is theoretically constructed on the principle of the separation of powers. It stipulates that legislative power belongs to the Congress, executive power to the president, and judicial power to the Supreme Court.

The area of competence of each of these powers is clearly defined. The president, the head of state and government, is elected by the population for a four-year term by means of indirect election by way of the Electoral College. The vice-president is on the same ballot as the president; for electoral purposes they never come from the same state.

The Constitution provides that the president must be a natural-born citizen who is at least 35 years of age and has lived in the USA for at least 14 years. A president can be removed from office only by impeachment, a special procedure provided for by the Constitution for indicting persons in the federal service, including the president and Supreme Court justices, for such crimes as committing treason and accepting bribes.

Impeachment is initiated by the House of Representatives; the case is tried by the Senate, with conviction requiring a two-thirds vote of the senators present. An official who is found guilty is removed from office and may subsequently be tried before an ordinary court like any other citizen. Impeachment has been initiated 12 times; only four cases ended in conviction. A president was impeached only once, in In , President Nixon was forced to resign when threatened with impeachment.

They include the right to veto bills passed by Congress; a presidential veto may, however, be overridden by repassage of the bill by a two-thirds majority of both houses.

The president drafts a national budget and sends messages to Congress, setting forth his own legislative program. In addition, the president is the commander in chief of the armed forces and has the power to conclude international treaties and executive agreements the latter without the advice and consent of the Senate.

The president may order the commencement of military operations. He has the authority to make appointments to the highest positions, with the advice and consent of the Senate; he also has the unilateral right to dismiss these officials.

The president also has the right of pardon. The administrative establishment subordinate to the president consists of the cabinet, the executive office of the president, and various administrative agencies and commissions. The cabinet, which includes 12 department heads secretaries and a number of persons having the rank of cabinet members, is a consultative body without any constitutional powers.

Cabinet members may not be members of Congress. The executive office of the president coordinates domestic and foreign policy. Congress consists of two houses—the Senate and the House of Representatives—which are chosen by direct election. The Senate has members two from each state , elected for six-year terms.

Only one-third of the Senate seats become vacant in any single election year. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a US citizen for at least nine years, and a resident of the state he or she represents. The vice-president is the president of the Senate.

The House of Representatives consists of members, elected for two-year terms. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a US citizen for at least seven years, and a resident of the state he or she represents. The presiding officer elected by the House is the speaker.

Congressional business is conducted along party lines, with each party electing its own leaders. Permanent standing and temporary congressional committees do the preparatory work on legislation; bills coming out of the committees are later introduced onto the floors of both houses for action.

After the elections, the membership of the House of Representatives included Democrats and Republicans, and the membership of the Senate included 58 Democrats, 41 Republicans, and one Independent.

The principal functions of Congress are law-making and the approval of a national budget. Congress also regulates commerce with foreign countries and among the states. It has the right to declare war, to conclude treaties concerning loans, and to raise and support armies.

Legislative initiative belongs to the members of both houses, and the powers of the houses are considered to be equal. Money bills may be introduced only in the House of Representatives. The Constitution defines the general principles of election law. Electoral systems, even for federal elections, are basically established by the states. However, there are still numerous means of preventing citizens, especially Negroes, from voting; for example, most states have a residency requirement, ranging from one month to one year.

Elections are characterized by absenteeism—the conscious nonparticipation of eligible voters. For example, only 63 percent of eligible voters participated in the presidential election in , 61 percent in and , and 55 percent in The states have various nominating systems, including nomination by petition and nomination by party convention.

Twenty-six states hold primaries, or preliminary elections, in which the voters choose a candidate to represent the state party organization. The results of elections are determined by the majority system; in other words, the winning candidate is the one who receives the majority of votes. There are laws limiting campaign spending, but they are systematically circumvented.

The judicial system includes federal, state, and local courts. The federal system consists of 89 district courts, 11 circuit appellate courts, and the Supreme Court.

All federal judges are appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Supreme Court is composed of nine justices. It has original jurisdiction in certain important types of cases, but it basically considers appeals from lower court rulings.

Moreover, the Supreme Court carries out the function of constitutional supervision. The national judicial system also includes a number of special courts, for example, the Customs Court, the Tax Court, the Court of Claims, and the Court of Military Appeals. The states have their own judicial systems, headed by state supreme courts. Each state has its own constitution; most state constitutions have been in effect since the late 18th century.

Legislative power belongs to the state legislatures, which are elected for terms ranging from two to four years. Executive power belongs to a governor, who is popularly elected for a term of two to four years; judicial power belongs to the state supreme court.

Each state has set up its own system of local government. Counties and large cities have governing boards and mayors, and in a number of cities a small commission is elected to run the city. Also widespread is the city manager system, whereby a person is hired to run a city under the supervision of an elected council.

Federalizm, shtaty i mestnoe upravlenie. Politicheskaia nauka v SShA. Belyi dom i kapitolii: Alaska is situated in the subarctic and arctic belts and borders on the Pacific and Arctic oceans. Occupying the tropical belt are southern Florida and the Hawaiian Islands. The coastline of the mainland USA is 22, km long.

The Atlantic coast is low-lying, bordered by a broad shelf reaching km in width, and strongly dissected by bays river estuaries and lagoons. The Pacific coast is hilly and bordered by a shelf reaching km in width.

The northern Pacific coast, along Washington and southern Alaska, is characterized by branching systems of fjords and straits separated from the ocean by islands. Mountains and tablelands occupy about one-half of the mainland USA.

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Its Constitution was drafted in by a constitutional convention held in Philadelphia. Prior to the Articles of Confederation, adopted in , had functioned as a constitution.

The Constitution is concisely worded, and many of its articles are general in nature. Hence, its interpretation, the duty of the Supreme Court, is vitally important. A very complicated procedure has been set up for adding amendments to the Constitution.

The amendments are proposed by Congress or by a constitutional convention convoked by Congress on the petition of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states. An amendment has the force of law after it has been ratified by the legislatures or special conventions of three-fourths of the states. Since , 26 amendments have been adopted. The first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were adopted in The amendments subsequently adopted are as follows:. Twelfth Amendment , establishing a procedure for electing the president, including the election of the president and vice-president by the House of Representatives if none of the candidates receives a majority of the electoral votes;.

Fourteenth Amendment , protecting the life, liberty, and property of citizens through due process of law and setting up a system for the apportionment of representatives in Congress;. Seventeenth Amendment , establishing the procedure for senatorial elections, including the introduction of the popular election of senators;. Twentieth Amendment , establishing the date for the beginning of the terms of office of the president, vice-president, senators, and representatives;.

Twenty-second Amendment , prohibiting the same person from being elected president more than twice;. Twenty-third Amendment , granting the residents of Washington D. Twenty-fifth Amendment , establishing a procedure for filling in a vacancy in the office of the president or vice-president by confirmation of the Congress;.

A twenty-seventh amendment to the Constitution, granting equal rights to women, was proposed in but has not yet been ratified by enough states.

The US Constitution is theoretically constructed on the principle of the separation of powers. It stipulates that legislative power belongs to the Congress, executive power to the president, and judicial power to the Supreme Court. The area of competence of each of these powers is clearly defined. The president, the head of state and government, is elected by the population for a four-year term by means of indirect election by way of the Electoral College. The vice-president is on the same ballot as the president; for electoral purposes they never come from the same state.

The Constitution provides that the president must be a natural-born citizen who is at least 35 years of age and has lived in the USA for at least 14 years. A president can be removed from office only by impeachment, a special procedure provided for by the Constitution for indicting persons in the federal service, including the president and Supreme Court justices, for such crimes as committing treason and accepting bribes.

Impeachment is initiated by the House of Representatives; the case is tried by the Senate, with conviction requiring a two-thirds vote of the senators present. An official who is found guilty is removed from office and may subsequently be tried before an ordinary court like any other citizen.

Impeachment has been initiated 12 times; only four cases ended in conviction. A president was impeached only once, in In , President Nixon was forced to resign when threatened with impeachment.

They include the right to veto bills passed by Congress; a presidential veto may, however, be overridden by repassage of the bill by a two-thirds majority of both houses. The president drafts a national budget and sends messages to Congress, setting forth his own legislative program. In addition, the president is the commander in chief of the armed forces and has the power to conclude international treaties and executive agreements the latter without the advice and consent of the Senate.

The president may order the commencement of military operations. He has the authority to make appointments to the highest positions, with the advice and consent of the Senate; he also has the unilateral right to dismiss these officials. The president also has the right of pardon. The administrative establishment subordinate to the president consists of the cabinet, the executive office of the president, and various administrative agencies and commissions. The cabinet, which includes 12 department heads secretaries and a number of persons having the rank of cabinet members, is a consultative body without any constitutional powers.

Cabinet members may not be members of Congress. The executive office of the president coordinates domestic and foreign policy. Congress consists of two houses—the Senate and the House of Representatives—which are chosen by direct election. The Senate has members two from each state , elected for six-year terms.

Only one-third of the Senate seats become vacant in any single election year. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a US citizen for at least nine years, and a resident of the state he or she represents. The vice-president is the president of the Senate.

The House of Representatives consists of members, elected for two-year terms. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a US citizen for at least seven years, and a resident of the state he or she represents.

The presiding officer elected by the House is the speaker. Congressional business is conducted along party lines, with each party electing its own leaders. Permanent standing and temporary congressional committees do the preparatory work on legislation; bills coming out of the committees are later introduced onto the floors of both houses for action. After the elections, the membership of the House of Representatives included Democrats and Republicans, and the membership of the Senate included 58 Democrats, 41 Republicans, and one Independent.

The principal functions of Congress are law-making and the approval of a national budget. Congress also regulates commerce with foreign countries and among the states. It has the right to declare war, to conclude treaties concerning loans, and to raise and support armies. Legislative initiative belongs to the members of both houses, and the powers of the houses are considered to be equal. Money bills may be introduced only in the House of Representatives.

The Constitution defines the general principles of election law. Electoral systems, even for federal elections, are basically established by the states. However, there are still numerous means of preventing citizens, especially Negroes, from voting; for example, most states have a residency requirement, ranging from one month to one year.

Elections are characterized by absenteeism—the conscious nonparticipation of eligible voters. For example, only 63 percent of eligible voters participated in the presidential election in , 61 percent in and , and 55 percent in The states have various nominating systems, including nomination by petition and nomination by party convention. Twenty-six states hold primaries, or preliminary elections, in which the voters choose a candidate to represent the state party organization.

The results of elections are determined by the majority system; in other words, the winning candidate is the one who receives the majority of votes. There are laws limiting campaign spending, but they are systematically circumvented. The judicial system includes federal, state, and local courts. The federal system consists of 89 district courts, 11 circuit appellate courts, and the Supreme Court.

All federal judges are appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Supreme Court is composed of nine justices. It has original jurisdiction in certain important types of cases, but it basically considers appeals from lower court rulings. Moreover, the Supreme Court carries out the function of constitutional supervision. The national judicial system also includes a number of special courts, for example, the Customs Court, the Tax Court, the Court of Claims, and the Court of Military Appeals.

The states have their own judicial systems, headed by state supreme courts. Each state has its own constitution; most state constitutions have been in effect since the late 18th century. Legislative power belongs to the state legislatures, which are elected for terms ranging from two to four years. Executive power belongs to a governor, who is popularly elected for a term of two to four years; judicial power belongs to the state supreme court.

Each state has set up its own system of local government. Counties and large cities have governing boards and mayors, and in a number of cities a small commission is elected to run the city. Also widespread is the city manager system, whereby a person is hired to run a city under the supervision of an elected council.

Federalizm, shtaty i mestnoe upravlenie. Politicheskaia nauka v SShA. Belyi dom i kapitolii: Alaska is situated in the subarctic and arctic belts and borders on the Pacific and Arctic oceans. Occupying the tropical belt are southern Florida and the Hawaiian Islands. The coastline of the mainland USA is 22, km long.

The Atlantic coast is low-lying, bordered by a broad shelf reaching km in width, and strongly dissected by bays river estuaries and lagoons. The Pacific coast is hilly and bordered by a shelf reaching km in width. The northern Pacific coast, along Washington and southern Alaska, is characterized by branching systems of fjords and straits separated from the ocean by islands. Mountains and tablelands occupy about one-half of the mainland USA.

The western part of the country, including almost all of Alaska, consists of the high mountain ranges, tablelands, and plateaus of the Cordilleran mountain system. Great elevations and dissected surfaces characterize the Appalachian Mountains Appalachia. The Central Lowland has elevations from and m; it is characterized by hilly, morainal terrain in the north and by eroded terrain in the central and southern parts.

They have elevations ranging from m in the east to 1, m in the foothills; in certain regions the network of valleys is so dense that the territory is unsuitable for economic use.

The Gulf Coastal Plain, with elevations reaching m, is swampy near the coast and bordered by a belt of marshes. The Cordilleras consist basically of a number of mountain chains, with maximum elevations from 3, to 5, m, and a broad band of interior tablelands and plateaus. In Alaska the ranges extend mainly from west to east, and in the northern section they are bordered by the flat Arctic Slope. In the coterminous USA the Cordilleras are oriented from north to south.

Their eastern edge is formed by the Rocky Mountains, which reach elevations of almost 4, m. To the west of the Rockies lie the volcanic Columbia Plateau, the deserts of the Great Basin an area of closed depressions—the largest of which is Death Valley , and the Colorado Plateau. These intermontane plateaus are typified by the alternation of flat areas at elevations of approximately 2, m and mountain massifs at elevations reaching 3,—3, m with numerous deep river canyons.

The plateaus and tablelands are bounded on the west by a narrow belt formed by the volcanic Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada with elevations greater than 4, m , which farther to the west border on the belt of valleys, including the Willamette Valley, the Central Valley, and Lower California.

The strongly dissected Coast Ranges, which have elevations reaching 2, m, extend along the Pacific coastline. The Hawaiian Islands are a group of volcanoes, with elevations as high as 4, m.

Geological structure and mineral resources. In the Great Lakes region the basement is exposed in two outcrops of the Canadian Shield: Located to the south is the midcontinental platform, with a mantle of Paleozoic Upper Cambrian-Carboniferous deposits on a Precambrian basement.

The principal geological structures running east to west are the Cincinnati anticline, the Michigan and Illinois synclines, the Wisconsin dome, the Ozark uplift, and the Forest City, Salinas, and Dodge City synclines.

In the east and south the Paleozoic fold system of Appalachia is concealed under Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Peninsular Florida, and the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

The thickness of the mantle greatly increases toward the ocean and the gulf reaching 12—16 km ; the subsidence of the basement is interrupted by relative uplifts for example, the Sabine, Monroe, and Jackson uplifts.

Data obtained from borings show that the buried continuation of the Appalachian system in Mississippi sharply changes its southeast-northwest orientation for a latitudinal direction and comes to the surface in the Ouachita Mountains. The Ouachita Mountains are characterized by sedimentary beds deposited at the end of the Paleozoic to the north on the deep Arkansas syn-cline. To the west of the mountains the Paleozoic fold zone is covered by a younger sedimentary mantle, enveloping the Bend anticline; it appears again in the Marathon Mountains on the Mexican border.

Stretching along the Pacific coast is a considerable portion of the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic fold system of the Cordilleras, which attain their greatest width, about 1, km, within the USA.

In the east the Cordilleras include the western edge of an ancient platform that underwent intensive dislocation during the Cretaceous the eastern section of the Rocky Mountains. South of this region is the Colorado Plateau, to the north of which is seen an alternation of oval depressions and fault-block uplifts of a Precambrian basement. The depressions are filled with thin carbonate Paleozoic deposits and thick terrigenous beds of Mesozoic and Lower Paleozoic age.

Stretching farther to the west is the miogeosyncline of the Rocky Mountains, which is marked by a complex thrust faulting of sedimentary beds and whose principal tectonic deformation occurred during the Laramide orogeny.

The ranges are cleaved from the north-northwest to the south-southeast by the San Andreas fault, which is associated with repeated, at times catastrophic, earthquakes for example, the San Francisco earthquake of In addition to the Great Valley, thick terrigenous Cenozoic deposits developed on the coast of southern California, where they underwent intensive folding, and in Oregon and Washington.

The Cascade Range, which extends through these three states, is a chain of young volcanoes; their eruptions consist primarily of andesitic lavas. The Columbia Plateau is formed of thick mantles of Miocene basalts. The most important mineral resources of the USA are the deposits of petroleum and natural gas distributed over the North American Platform.

Major Paleozoic deposits are located in the Appalachian, Arkansas, and Anadarko downwarps, as well as in the Michigan Basin. Mesozoic deposits are found in the Eastern Rocky Mountains and in the sedimentary mantle of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and Paleozoic and Mesozoic deposits are located in the West Texan downwarp, Peninsular Florida, and the shelf of the Gulf of Mexico.

Important petroleum and natural gas deposits are also found in Cretaceous and Cenozoic Cordilleran depressions near Los Angeles, as well as in Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds of the Arctic Slope of northern Alaska and in the Cenozoic depression of the Cook Inlet in southern Alaska. There also are coal-bearing Cretaceous and Paleogenic deposits in the Rocky Mountains. Large iron deposits are found in the Precambrian basement of the shield near Lake Superior and in the Colorado Plateau.

Sedimentary deposits of uranium are located in the Colorado Plateau and in the eastern part of the Rocky Mountains. There are seams of lead-zinc deposits in the carbonate strata of the platform.

The climate is temperate and subtropical marine on the Pacific coast, continental-marine on the Atlantic coast, continental in the Interior Plains, and extremely continental in the interior plateaus and tablelands of the Cordilleras.

Northern Alaska has an arctic climate with very severe winters and cold summers, southern Alaska has a subarctic marine climate, and the Yukon tablelands of central Alaska have a continental climate. The contrasts between the climatic conditions of various regions are most pronounced in the winter. Variations in temperature are not so great in the summer, except for the interior plateau regions of the Cordilleras, where extremely hot weather persists.

The record high temperature for the USA and the entire western hemisphere was The annual precipitation totals 3,—4, mm in southeastern Alaska and western Washington, 1,—2, mm in the Southeast, mm in the interior foothills of the Rocky Mountains, 1, mm in the eastern parts of the Interior Plains, and less than mm in places in the interior tablelands and plateaus.

There is considerable air pollution in the USA, especially in large cities and industrial centers. Each year toxic gases and as much as million tons of dust enter the atmosphere. In the mainland USA the average annual flow depth is 27 cm; the total flow volume is 1, cu km. The water resources vary from year to year. The annual flow depth is 60— cm in western Washington and western Oregon, 40— cm in Appalachia, 20—40 cm in the Central Lowland, 10—20 cm in the Great Plains, and as little as 10 cm in the interior tablelands and plateaus.

The largest rivers are the Mississippi with an annual flow rate of cu km , St. Lawrence with an annual flow rate of 67 cu km , and the Columbia with a flow rate of 60 cu km.

The regimen of most of the rivers is irregular, especially in regions with a continental climate. Lawrence River, which rises in the Great Lakes, has a regular regimen. More than half of their area belongs to the USA; the remainder is Canadian territory. A number of important closed salt lakes, for example, the Great Salt Lake, are located in the lowlands of the Great Basin. There are numerous karst and lagoon-type lakes in Florida.

Alaska has a number of large lakes of glacier-tectonic origin, for example, Lake Iliamna. Total groundwater reserves amount to 60, cu km, of which 85 cu km are replenished each year. The rivers and lakes are used extensively to supply water for industrial purposes, public consumption, and irrigation.

They are also used for the production of electric energy and for shipping. The greatest reserves of water power are in the West, particularly in the Columbia River basin.

The water intake in totaled cu km, while losses without return for the most part, to irrigation totaled cu km. Because of the increased pollution of lakes and rivers, especially in the northeastern and southwestern areas, purification measures are being implemented. In the Northeast, in the foothills of the Appalachians, and in the Great Lakes region there is a predominance of soddy-podzols and brown forest soils, which in the southern states change to red and yellow soils.

These soils are highly productive, although they require substantial amounts of fertilizer. The western part of the Central Lowland has prairie soils with a high humus content; these extremely fertile soils are used for the cultivation of such highly productive crops as soybeans and corn.

Under the more arid and continental climatic conditions of the Great Plains, chernozem and chestnut soils formed. The interior plateaus and tablelands of the Cordilleras, which are characterized by a very arid climate, have brown semidesert soils and subtropical desert soils.

Also widespread in the plains region soddy-car-bonate soils Great Lakes region, Gulf Coastal Plain , alluvial soils Mississippi Valley , and meadow-swamp soils. The mountain regions are characterized by brown forest soils and brown soils.

The principal soil cover in Alaska is composed of tundra, soddy-peaty, and cryogenic-taiga soils. The Hawaiian Islands have ferralitic soils. More than 72 million hectares ha of land have been damaged by erosion, primarily in the western part of the Great Plains. Each year about 3 billion tons of soil are carried away by water and wind. Dust storms are also observed. Soil salinization has become more intensive, as has the pollution of soil by industrial discharges and pesticides.

Prior to the arrival of the European settlers, nearly one-half of the territory of what is now the USA was occupied by forests. Forests covered the entire eastern section and most of the slopes of the Cordilleras; a substantial area of the Interior Plains was occupied by steppes.

Only in the mountain regions has vegetation been preserved in its original form. In the Northeast and near the Great Lakes coniferous-broadleaf forests of pine, spruce, fir, maple, linden, and ash are encountered; also common are meadows and plowed areas. To the south, in the lower elevations of the Appalachians up to m , coniferous-broadleaf forests are replaced by broadleaf forests of oak, maple, sumac, tulip trees, and plane trees. The high-grass prairie vegetation that previously predominated in the Central Lowland is no longer extant.

Steppes are also characteristic of certain isolated regions of the Cordilleras. Coniferous forests predominate in the Cordilleras. Pine forests cover the principal, most arid, portions of the slopes; spruce-fir forests occur higher up in less arid sections; and subalpine and alpine meadows are found above 2,—3, m. Widespread along the Pacific coast are forests of Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, and canoe cedar.

The giant sequoia and one other sequoia species are encountered in California. In the arid Southwest, forests give way to thickets of hard-leaved shrubs and trees. Sparse coniferous forests and tundra vegetation are prevalent in Alaska; the forests are of the northern taiga type. The forested area of the USA totals million ha. Commercial forests occupy million ha and include a timber reserve of 15 billion cu m. The mixed-forest zone is inhabited by the brown bear, lynx, wolverine, and fisher.

The white-tailed deer, the bay lynx, the Eastern chipmunk, the star-nosed mole, and various species of bats are encountered in the forests of Appalachia.

The southeastern USA is characterized by a fauna consisting of a mixture of boreal and tropical species. Its wildlife includes alligators, alligator snappers, peccaries, opossums, flamingos, pelicans, and hummingbirds. Steppe fauna has been preserved in the Southeast only in small numbers: There are numerous local varieties of skunks, badgers, and ground squirrels.

The semideserts and deserts are inhabited by various rodents and reptiles. The Cordilleran slopes are the habitat of mountain goats, bighorn sheep, and grizzly bears mainly in Alaska ; the southern slopes are inhabited by jaguars, armadillos, and cacomistles.

The animal life of Alaska includes numerous taiga and tundra species, for example, caribou. The Aleutian Islands are frequented by valuable marine mammals, including sea otters and seals.

Important commercial fishes found in the coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean include the Atlantic cod and the Atlantic herring in the north and the Atlantic menhaden in the south. Commercially valuable marine animals in the Pacific Ocean include salmon, halibut, tuna, crabs, shrimp, and oysters. As of , the USA had approximately 4, national parks, national monuments, state parks, wildlife preserves, and recreational areas.

The USA is made up of a number of natural regions. Appalachia, a mountainous region of medium elevations, is covered primarily by mixed and broad-leaved forests. The Laurentian Upland, which within the borders of the USA includes only a region west of Lake Superior, is marked by a hilly morainal terrain, coniferous forests, and numerous lakes and swamps. The Central Lowland, whose terrain is hilly in the north and more gently rolling in the south, is strongly dissected by ravines and valleys.

Its soils—brown forest soils and chernozems—have been cultivated almost throughout the region. The Central Lowland has several large navigable rivers, including the Mississippi and its tributaries. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains have a flat surface; there are occasional marshes along the coasts.

The forests of the coastal plains consist of evergreens—pines in the arid sections and a predominance of deciduous species in more humid areas. Low-grass steppe vegetation predominates in the Great Plains. The Cordilleras of the mainland USA constitute a mountainous region with high ranges extending mainly parallel to the Pacific coast and with a chain of interior plateaus and tablelands.

The region is divided into three parts: The mountains are covered by dense coniferous forests. The Central Valley consists of steppes, which have been plowed under, and semideserts; there are regions of scrub vegetation in the extreme southwest.

The Alaskan Cordilleras are divided into three regions: Elias Mountains, the Chugash Mountains, the Kenai Mountains, the Aleutian Range, and the Aleutian Islands, as well as the valleys and basins separating the various mountain ranges. Klimal Soedinennykh Shtatov Ameriki. Regional Geomorphology of the United States. Physiography of the United States. Large Rivers of the United States. Climatic Atlas of the United States. In the 17th and 18th centuries most immigrants were from England, Scotland, Holland, Germany, and Ireland.

The English formed the nucleus of the American people. The immigration of the third quarter of the 19th century was primarily from Germany, Ireland, England, and the Scandinavian countries. In the last quarter of the 19th century there was an influx of new Americans from Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and other Southern and Eastern European countries.

During the 20th century immigrants from other parts of the Americas—Canada, Mexico, and the West Indies—have constituted an ever increasing portion of the total immigration. In the 17th and 18th centuries many Negro slaves were brought from Africa.

All these groups were gradually assimilated: This process was accompanied by economic and other types of discrimination, to which, in changing forms, various groups of the population were subjected. An internal heterogeneity continues to be characteristic of the American nation. Standing out particularly are the Negroes, who number about 23 million this figure and subsequent estimates are based on the census and who have formed their own ethnic group within the American nation.

Immigrants make up transitional ethnic groups, which are continuously being renewed by fresh settlers and eroded by the processes of assimilation. It is impossible to draw a precise dividing line between such transitional groups and the American nation proper.

The number of Americans in the narrow sense of the word—including Negroes and immigrants beginning with the third generation —is approximately million. Of the total US population, This portion of the population includes 4. The remnants of the indigenous population are not numerous: American Indians total about , a considerable number of them live on reservations , and Eskimo number approximately 30, At the same time a number of groups retain the language of their forebears in the third and subsequent generations.

Along with a continuing assimilation, tendencies have been observed toward the isolation and internal consolidation of a number of ethnic groups ethnocentrism , and toward an intensification of the movement against the discrimination of Negroes and American Indians. Approximately 55 percent of the US population are Protestants of various denominations Baptists, Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and many others , and about 37 percent are Roman Catholics. The remainder of the population consists of the Eastern Orthodox, Jews, and—to a lesser extent—Muslims, Buddhists, and adherents of other religious faiths.

The official calendar is the Gregorian. BERZINA The rapid population growth during the 19th and the early 20th centuries was caused by a high natural increase accounting for a 2. Between and approximately 39 million immigrants entered the country.

With the passage of restrictive legislation after World War I —18 , immigration declined. In a new immigration law was promulgated, which was basically just as restrictive as the earlier legislation. Since World War II —45 the average number of immigrants entering the country has totaled about , a year.

Table 2a shows the dynamics of the US population. Since the midth century the natural population growth rate has declined; by it had declined to 0. The decrease was the result of a decline in the birth rate and a stabilization of the death rate.

Scientific and technological progress has brought about a shift in the occupational makeup of the US work force. During the past 20 years there has been a great increase among white-collar workers in the proportion of highly skilled specialists for example, scientists and engineers , managers, and highly paid civil servants and office workers.

Among hired workers in the area of physical labor the proportion of persons engaged in the service fields has increased. In there were 82 million persons in the labor force, including About 2,, persons worked in agriculture, lumbering, and fishing, , in mining, 19,, in manufacturing, 4,, in construction, 16,, in business and hotel management, 3,, in transportation and communications, 5,, in finance and insurance, 25,, in community, social, and domestic services, and 3,, in other industries.

More than 90 percent of the labor force consists of hired workers. Although low-paid white-collar and blue-collar workers constitute about 40 percent of the work force, they receive only 12 percent of the total salaries and wages. About 20 percent of the highest paid workers receive 46 percent of all earnings. The monopolistic bourgeoisie, which receives huge profits, constitutes less than 1 percent of the economically active population.

There has been noticeable population growth in the West and South. Between and the portion of the population in the West increased from 15 to 18 percent, the portion of the population in the South increased from 28 to 32 percent, and the portion of the population in the North decreased from 56 to 50 percent. In , California was the most highly populated state, with The average population density is about 24 persons per sq km. The eastern half of the country is more densely populated, with the highest densities found in the old industrial states in the Northeast for example, New Jersey, with persons per sq km.

West of the Mississippi River the density decreases, and in the mountain states of the Cordilleras it ranges from 1. In California the population density is The least populated region in the USA is Alaska, where the population density is 0. The process of urbanization has intensified. The urban population accounted for In approximately In American statistics, cities have a population of 2, or greater.

The greatest level of urbanization has taken place in the northeastern states, where the urban population constitutes 80 percent of the population, and in California, where the urban population constitutes 90 percent of the total.

Large cities—those with more than , inhabitants —account for only 2 percent of the total number of cities, but they have a concentration of 38 percent of the urban population. Cities having 1 million or more inhabitants within city limits in are New York 7. Other major cities with populations greater than , within their administrative limits estimates include Baltimore , , Boston , , Cleveland , , Columbus , , Dallas , , Indianapolis , , Jacksonville , , Memphis , , Milwaukee , , New Orleans , , Phoenix , , St.

As a result of the concentration of population around large cities, the suburbs have grown rapidly. Encompassing more and more territory, they form metropolitan regions of small and medium-sized towns. A belt of densely populated areas stretches along the Atlantic coast and forms a megalopolis of 40 million inhabitants. Similar megalopolises are developing along the Pacific coast and the shores of the Great Lakes. In , 52 percent of urban dwellers lived in the suburbs of metropolitan areas.

Ethnic minorities frequently form their own neighborhoods, and congested Negro ghettos have become typical of large cities. Landlords collect high rents for unmaintained housing, which has become catastrophically obsolete. The socioeconomic problems of US cities are becoming more critical, aggravated by racial discrimination and a high level of unemployment. Emissions from numerous industrial plants and the exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, along with industrial wastes dumped into bodies of water, have led to a worsening of living conditions in the cities.

One of the most urgent problems facing US cities is environmental protection. Prior to the European colonization of North America, the land was populated by Indians and Eskimo, whose ancestors probably migrated to America from Northeast Asia by way of the Bering Sea region about 20, or 30, years ago. The Indians and Eskimo were at different stages of a primitive communal structure.

The Eskimo, who lived along the Arctic coast of North America, engaged primarily in hunting. The Indian tribes of the northwestern coast of North America, including the Tlingit and Haida tribes, engaged in fishing and the hunting of marine mammals.

Social relations were characterized by a transition from a matriarchal to a patriarchal family structure; patriarchal slavery and barter had already appeared. In the Southwest the agricultural tribes, such as the Pueblos and the Pimas, were the most developed. The Indians of California, who lagged behind the other peoples of North America in level of development, engaged in gathering, fishing, and hunting.

The Plains were inhabited by nomadic hunting tribes. Along with features of a matriarchate, many Plains tribes exhibited the beginnings of a patriarchal family structure. The tribes of settled farmers in the East, for example, the Iroquois, Algonquins, and Muskogee, were acquainted with hoe land cultivation; they also engaged in hunting and gathering. According to rough estimates the territory of the present-day USA was inhabited by about 1 million Indians during the 16th century.

By the time of European colonization many tribes had established tribal and military alliances, such as the League of the Iroquois and the Creek Confederacy. A league of seven Dakota tribes presented very stubborn resistence to the Europeans. America was discovered by Columbus in The colonization of North America by Europeans began in the following century, with the establishment of colonies by Spain, France, England, Holland, and Sweden.

Alaska was discovered and settled by the Russians in the 18th century. Spanish and Russian settlements were founded in California in the late 18th century and early 19th century, respectively. Most of the European settlers were from England.

The English established their first permanent settlement in the south in Virginia in ; their first permanent northern settlement in Massachusetts was founded in After seizing the Dutch colony of New Netherland as a result of wars with Holland , England expanded its possessions along the Atlantic coast.

The socioeconomic development of the 13 English colonies in North America had as its basis elements of the capitalist order. The New England and Middle Atlantic colonies primarily had a small-scale farming economy; in the second half of the 17th century capitalist manufacturing began to develop. There were also certain elements of feudalism in agriculture, although attempts by the ruling upper classes to monopolize rights to the land and to establish feudal rule in the vast uncolonized lands were doomed to failure.

The social struggle, which took on various forms, included a number of anticolonial uprisings, for example, the one led by N. Bacon in Virginia in and the one led by J. Leisler in New York from to Particularly important in the socioeconomic development of the colonies was slavery. The extensive use of slave labor was brought about primarily by the comparatively easy acquisition of land by the colonists.

As a consequence, the number of people making up the labor force in the colonies was extremely limited, and the wages of freemen were high. Gradually the use of white slaves was replaced by the more economical Negro slavery.

In the southern colonies Negro slave labor served as the basis for the plantation economy, which was based primarily on tobacco cultivation until the late 18th century. As the economic development of the colonies proceeded apace, conflicts with the mother country arose. The English bourgeoisie regarded the colonies as a source of raw materials and a market for English industry.

Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the English government adopted various measures to suppress industrial development in the colonies. However, the development of capitalism, the gradual establishment of a unified market in the colonies, and the strengthening of ties among the colonies led to the emergence of a North American nation. A progressive bourgeois ideology resulted from the struggle against church regulations, religious fanaticism, and superstition.

Leading representatives of the American Enlightenment included B. In the British government prohibited the colonists from settling beyond the Allegheny Mountains. It also adopted stiff measures against smuggling, a practice in which almost all American merchants were engaged. The Stamp Act, enacted by the British Parliament in , affected almost every colonist, since it placed a tax on commercial and legal documents, periodicals, and all other printed matter. Thus, in essence, the question of authority was posed.

A number of political revolutionary organizations were founded in the colonies. Chief among them were the Sons of Liberty and the committees of correspondence—mass organizations of artisans, laborers, farmers, and members of the urban petite bourgeoisie. American Revolution —83 and the formation of the USA.

The period of colonial development paved the way for the American Revolution, the first bourgeois revolution on the American continent. The Revolution was unique in that it was at the same time a national-liberation, national-unification, and antifeudal movement. The popular masses played a decisive role in the Revolution, but political leadership belonged to the bourgeoisie, which formed a bloc with the plantation owners. The Revolution brought about the overthrow of the colonial yoke and the formation of an independent nation—the United States of America.

The Revolution eliminated elements of feudalism in landownership. The Northwest Ordinance of converted the western lands into general state property; this extremely important progressive measure created the prerequisites for the capitalist development of agriculture in the northern part of the country. The Revolution did not, however, resolve all the problems confronting the new nation. For example, slavery was not abolished in the South, and the class struggle intensified.

The economic difficulties of the postwar period laid all the burdens on the shoulders of the workers. The Constitution of officially established the USA as a federal republic, consisting initially of 13 states.

The centralization of power provided for by the Constitution was intended to put an end to attempts to further the Revolution. At the same time, the strengthening of central authority and other provisions of the Constitution facilitated the unification of the states and the growth of capitalist relations. Washington, commander in chief of the American troops during the Revolution, was the first president of the USA.

In the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which are known as the Bill of Rights, were adopted. Proposed in in response to pressure from the popular masses, the amendments assured the fundamental democratic liberties. End of the 18th century to the Civil War — The formation of an independent nation created the conditions for the rapid development of capitalism in the USA. Other important factors favorable to capitalist growth included the existence of extensive lands and natural resources, large-scale immigration from Europe, and an influx of foreign capital.

The prerequisites for an industrial revolution were established by the beginning of the 19th century. Industrialization was uneven in nature: The formation of a bourgeoisie and a proletariat occurred in the industrialized regions.

The industrial revolution first manifested itself primarily in the production of cotton and woolen goods. The expansion of the domestic market led to a revolution in transportation during the first quarter of the 19th century. Between and the first railroad was built, connecting the city of Baltimore with the Ohio River; by there were about 30, km of railroad track in the USA. The industrial revolution in the Northeast paralleled the colonization of the West.

The struggle concerning land distribution was the most important aspect of the class struggle in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Ordinance of , in the interests of land speculators, sanctioned the sale of public lands only in tracts of no less than acres.

These changes led to increased settlement of western lands. In , , persons lived west of the Allegheny Mountains, in , ,, and in , 4. In the colonized regions of the West there was a rapid process of differentiation and a shift from patriarchal households to capitalist farmer households. While profound changes in industry and agriculture occurred in the North, a reactionary slaveholding system continued to predominate in the South.

The destiny of the slaveholding South was greatly influenced by the growth of the textile industry in Great Britain during the industrial revolution and by the appearance of a new commercial crop—cotton.

The number of Negro slaves in the South increased from , in to 4 million in In the USA produced about 3, bales of cotton Given the expansive nature of the plantation system of farming and the increased exploitation of Negro slaves, an unlimited reserve of free land was required. The simultaneous development of two social systems—capitalist production in the North and slavery in the South—later led to their confrontation, which spilled over into a second bourgeois revolution.

During the acute political struggle of —91, the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Anti-Federalist political parties were organized. The Federalists represented the interests of the commercial big bourgeoisie, bankers, and land speculators. They sought to strengthen centralized authority and limit bourgeois democratic liberties.

The Democratic-Republicans derived their support from a bloc of mixed social makeup, including farmers, village merchants, the urban petite bourgeoisie, and plantation owners. They advocated greater access to land for the farmers, a democratization of the Constitution, and broader rights to the states. In the interests of the commercial-financial bourgeoisie a law was passed in providing for government assumption of state debt bonds, most of which had been bought up by speculators.

The secretary of the treasury, the Federalist A. Hamilton, conducted an economic policy encouraging national industry and trade through the increase of tariff duties and the attraction of capital to the USA. In the Federalist J. The Federalists encountered resistance from democratic forces, who united around the Democratic-Republicans to ensure the victory of T.

Jefferson in the presidential election of Jefferson president, —09 abolished the Alien and Sedition Acts and implemented a number of progressive measures. Laws enacted in and led to a partial agrarian reform: Desiring to strengthen its international position, the USA established diplomatic relations with Russia in — Monroe proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine, which at that time was directed against European intervention in the western hemisphere.

However, from the very beginning the doctrine reflected US expansionist tendencies with regard to Latin America and US pretensions to dominate the entire American continent. After the War of , the Federalist Party in effect ceased to exist; power remained in the hands of the Democratic-Republicans until During the terms of the Democratic-Republican presidents J.

Madison —17 , J. Monroe —25 , and J. Adams —29 a number of important measures were enacted to aid industrial development for example, the protective tariffs of , , and Working conditions were extremely poor: The formation of a working class was furthered by European immigration and the overflow of the labor force from northeastern cities to newly settled regions. This also had an effect both on the ideology and the organizational forms of the labor movement.

Consisting of local associations of workers and artisans, they advocated the implementation of democratic political and social reforms within an individual state or city.

In the early years of the labor movement the Utopian socialist ideas of Fourier and Owen became widespread among the workers and the radical intelligentsia. The heightened political struggle between the bourgeoisie and the slaveholders and an upswing in the movement for democratic reforms led to the disintegration of the Democratic-Republican Party. In the Democratic Party of the USA was formed, which during its initial period united farmers, many planter-slaveholders, and some members of the bourgeoisie.

Jackson, the candidate of the Democratic Party, was the victor in the presidential election of His presidency was characterized by political maneuvering among the slaveholders, the bourgeoisie, and the farmers. A number of democratic reforms were carried out. In the new western states constitutions were adopted providing suffrage for the entire white male population, laws authorizing imprisonment for debt were abolished, and labor organizations that previously had been nonregistered were allowed to function without government interference.

It maintained political control of the country, except for brief intervals, until The bourgeois Whig Party, which took shape in , was victorious in only two presidential elections, in and The Whigs opposed a strengthening of federal authority, advocated industrial development in both the North and the South, and maintained a compromise position regarding slavery.

As a result of the Mexican War —48 the USA annexed almost half of Mexico, and in accordance with the American-Mexican treaty of the Gadsden Treaty approximately , more sq km were taken from Mexico.

The USA imposed inequitable treaties upon China and and Japan and participated in the suppression of the Taiping Rebellion of —64 in China. Leading abolitionists were W. The Underground Railroad, an underground organization established by the abolitionists, helped Negro slaves escape from the southern states.

The entire history of the slaveholding South is punctuated by a series of uncoordinated disturbances and armed uprisings. The most important of these were the insurrection of slaves led by Gabriel near Richmond , the conspiracy of Denmark Vesey in South Carolina , and the Nat Turner rebellion in Virginia Labor organizations took part in the struggle against slavery.

Among the immigrants were leaders of the Communist League, including J. Jacobi, on whose initiative the first Marxist organizations in the USA were founded in The Communist Club was organized in New York in In , California was admitted to the USA as a nonslaveholding state. As a result, the balance of free and slave states, a balance that had been maintained with difficulty for 30 years by the slaveholders, was destroyed. Political power still remained in the hands of the planters.

In a fugitive slave law was enacted, requiring authorities in the northern states to capture fugitive slaves and return them to their owners. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of provided that settlers would themselves determine whether to establish free or slave states.

In the US Supreme Court handed down a decision in the Dred Scott case, wherein it held that a slave remained the property of his master in any state.

Between and clashes between farmers and slaveholders in Kansas grew into an armed struggle, during the course of which the government supported the slaveholders. The Republican Party platform, which advocated the limiting of slavery to territory where it existed, the granting of free land to settlers in the West, and the encouragement of industry, was supported by the industrial bourgeoisie, farmers, and workers. As the struggle against slavery became more acute, a revolutionary trend crystallized within the abolitionist movement.

Although the uprising was crushed, it served as a powerful impetus for intensifying the struggle of slaves, workers, and farmers against slavery. In the Republican candidate, A. Lincoln, won the presidential election.

The slaveholders, who had been preparing a counterrevolutionary insurrection for a long time, adopted a resolution calling for the secession of the slave states.

The revolution consisted of two stages: The revolution changed the social structure of the South and resolved in a democratic manner the agrarian question in the western part of the country, granting settlers the right to acquire lands from the public domain. All power passed into the hands of the bourgeoisie. In the struggle against the planters, the leading role belonged to those among the bourgeoisie who recognized the necessity of abolishing slavery and, after prolonged hesitation, embarked upon the path of revolutionary action.

However, the decisive contribution to the defeat of the rebels was made by the popular masses: During Reconstruction the revolution proceeded with less intensity and a narrowed base, localized mainly in the South. The former slaves, who had struggled for their social and political rights, became the most revolutionary force.

The democratic resolution of the agrarian question in the South was one of the principal tasks of the revolution. The abolition of slavery and the undermining of the power of the southern planters opened the way for rapid capitalist development as early as the first decade after the war.

It was during this period that the industrial revolution in the USA was completed. Intensive railroad construction made possible the establishment of permanent economic ties throughout the country and the expansion of the domestic market. Between and about 54, km of railroads were built. January 12, , Warren, IA. June 07, , Warren, IA; d. June , Wichita, Sedgwick, KS; m. November 29, , MO; d. November 01, , Wichita, Sedgwick, KS.

October , Warren, IA; m. March 04, , Madison Co, IA; d. December 01, , Oakley, Logan, KS; m. April 11, , KS; d. December 15, , Oakley, Logan, KS. Record indicates Charles and "Addie" had been married 21 years, with 9 children, all living. October 18, , Warren Co, IA; d. February 02, , Indianola, Warren, IA; d. July 13, , Warren Co, IA. May 12, , Polk Co, IA. June 10, , Polk Co, IA. October 13, , Warren Co, IA.

March 19, , Warren, IA; d. January 10, , Indianola, Warren, IA; m. July 25, , Medora, Warren, IA; d. November 26, , Squaw, Warren, IA. May 02, , Warren, IA; d.

October 21, , Indianola, Warren, IA; m. April 28, , Warren, IA; d. February , Indianola, Warren, IA. April 03, , Warren, IA; d. February 26, , Stone Mountain, GA; m. May 13, , Warren, IA; d. April 02, , IA. April 30, , Linn, IA; d. August 24, , OK; d. September 24, , Gainesville, Hall, GA. February 16, , Linn, IA; d. March 02, , Linn, IA.

March 28, , Jasper, MO. Profession in , Lead Miner. April , Jasper, MO. June 20, , Jasper, MO; d. October 13, , Everett, Snohomish, WA. Ira migrated to WA state with his w fe's parents. His wife and children remained in WA state. August , Joplin, Jasper, MO. Grant and Mancy had been married 8 years at this point.

October 02, , Mt. January 13, , Pollock, Sullivan, MO; d. August 18, , Pinal, AZ; m. States his home was Pittsburg, Crawford, KS. May 26, , Pollock, Sullivan, MO; d. August 13, , Milan, Sullivan, MO; d. September 01, , Fairview, Newton, MO; d. April 13, , Denver, Denver, CO. February 03, , Pollock, Sullivan, MO; d. He was a Longshoreman. August 23, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d.

October 27, , Cherokee, Crawford, KS; m. February 20, , KS; d. August , Crawford, KS. Date of death taken from gravestone. March 05, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d. December 27, , Holiday, FL; m. July 29, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d. October 25, ; d. March 11, , Alameda Co, CA; m. November 11, ; d. September 27, , Alameda Co, CA. Birth and Death dates acquired through Alameda CA obituaries. Birth and death dates acquired through Alameda Co, CA obituaries.

April 16, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d. July 21, , Seiling, Dewey, OK. September 28, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d.

October 18, , Shawnee, KS. May 31, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d. November 15, , Seiling, Dewey, OK. June 16, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; m. March 05, , Leominster, Worcester, MA; d. August 29, , Leominster, Worcester, MA. May 09, , Seiling, Dewey, OK; d.

November 06, , Nederland, Jefferson, TX; m. July 23, , Minneapolis, MN; d. October 10, , Hurricane, UT. Lema May Moore Green was trampled to death by cattle she was trying to get out of the corn. She was 25 years old. Dwight was age 26 at the time of his marriage to Lema, who was May 04, , KS; d. January , Mutual, Woodward, OK.

Mary and her brother William are living with their aunt, Addie Sines Moore Ro berts after the death of their mother in William and his sister Mary are living with their aunt, Addie Sines Moore Rob er ts in after the death of their mother in Obituary for Addie M. Roberts states she died in the home of her daughter, Mrs. Anna McCaughey, in Milan. August 27, and passed away at the home of her daughter, Mrs.

Anna McCaughey, in Milan, Mo. March 13, she was united in marriage to George M. Thirteen children were born to this marriage. She was preceded in death by her husband in , and seven children, six of which died in infancy and one daughter, Mrs. Effie Opal Smith, in Also preceding her in death were four infant grandchildren, one grandson, Daryl Caldwell in , and one daughter-in-law, Arlene Roberts in Surviving are two daughters, Mrs. Anna McCaughey and Mrs. Roberts had spent 81 years in Sullivan County.

She was a member of the Bairdstown Methodist Church. She was a kind and loving wife mother and grandmother and a good neighbor and will be sadly missed by all who knew her.

Funeral services were conducted at the Bairdstown Church at 2: January 2, by Rev. The song service was by Mrs. Betty Sue Smith and Mrs. Mary Ann Cowgill, accompanied by Mrs. Roberts and Mike Caldwell. Marriage performed by S. He was united in marriage to Miss Addie Moore March 13, To this union thirteen children were born, six dying in infancy, and a daughter, Mrs.

Effie Smith, passing away October 1, Surviving are the widow, four sons, George, Jr. Anna Caldwell, all of near Milan, and Mrs. Crystal Eaton of Harris, Mo. Roberts of Pollock, Mo. Three brothers and three sisters preceded him in death. Sixteen years ago he placed his membership in the Methodist church at Bairdstown and became a member of the Masonic Lodge, A. Funeral services were held at the Bairdstown church at 2 p. Tuesday, March 14, conducted by Rev. David Finley, pastor of the church.

Burial in the cemetery nearby. July 30, , Sullivan, MO; d. October 29, , Sullivan, MO. August 18, , Sullivan, MO; d. July 17, , Milan, Sullivan, MO; m. September 14, , Honaker, W. July 29, , Sullivan, MO; m. May 29, , MO; d. October , Milan, Sullivan, MO. August 28, , Sullivan, MO; d. November 23, , Sullivan, MO. January 15, , Sullivan, MO; d. August 30, , Milan, Sullivan, MO; m. January 25, , Sullivan, MO; d. June , Milan, Sullivan, MO. October 26, , Bairdstown, Sullivan, MO; d.

October 01, , Crown Point, IN; m. December 03, , Harris, Sullivan, MO; d. December 31, , Gary, IN. Roberts, was born at Bairdstown, Mo. At the t ime of her death she was 29 years, 11 months and 5 days old. She was united in marriage to Nova C. Smith, at Milan, Mo.

To this union t wo children were born, namely: Neal Roberts, age 5, and Shirley Ann, age 3. A short time before death she told her husband she knew her prayers had been answer ed. She had seen the pearly gates and the angels.

Effie lived a good christia n life; was a kind and loving daughter, wife and mother, and a faithful frien d. To know her was to love her. Her friends were numbered by her acquaintan ces. She leaves to mourn her passing, her husband, two children, father, mot her, two sisters: Anna Caldwell and Crystal Eaton; four brothers, Georgie, Le land, Bernie and Quinton; three nephews, one niece and a host of other relati ves and friends.

Three brothers and three sisters died in infancy. June 29, ; m. December 25, , Sullivan, MO; d. January 19, , Sullivan, MO. December 04, , Sullivan, MO; d. February 07, , Sullivan, MO. November 14, , Sullivan, MO; d. December 04, , Milan, Sullivan, MO; m. October 08, , Sullivan, MO; d. March 04, , Columbia, MO; m. September 28, , Sullivan, MO; d. August 04, , Kansas City, MO; m. January 28, , IN; d. November 15, , IN; d. January 04, ; m. She was born April in AR.

Navarro, TX, page 69A. August , Navarro, TX. January 25, , Navarro, TX. March , Navarro, TX. April 21, , Navarro, TX; d. May 04, , Navarro, TX; d. November 10, , Dallas, Dallas, TX; m. June 25, , Navarro, TX; d. January , Houston, Harris, TX; m. November 20, , Navarro, TX; d.

March 31, , Houston, TX. November 18, , Trinity, TX; m. February 19, , Houston, TX; d. March 17, , Holt, MO; m. October 28, , Holt, MO; d. March 18, , Holt, MO. November 22, , Holt, MO; d. January 18, , Maitland, Holt, MO; m. August 06, , MO. March 22, , Holt, MO; d. September 30, , Dodge, Ford, KS; m. January 25, , MO; d. December 23, , Holt, MO; d. December 17, , Holt, MO. July 01, , Holt, MO; d. March 18, , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE; m.

April 10, , Atchison, MO; d. January 11, , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE. January 08, , Holt, MO; d. May 07, , Holt, MO. March 08, , Holt, MO; d. March 13, , Holt, MO. September 17, , Holt, MO; d. July 31, , Holt, MO. February 10, , Holt, MO; d. June 02, , Chicago, Cook, IL; m. January 26, , Benton, OR; d. June 26, , Corvallis, Benton, OR. June 19, , Corvallis, Benton, OR; d. April 26, , Portland, Multnomah, OR; d. December 08, , San Francisco, CA.

Moore sec 18 twp 19 range 17 sale date 22 Jan Volume page Fitz was in charge. Moore died Thursday, Jan. Grace Kidder and Mrs. Members of the F conducted services at the cemetery. Burial was in Mt. Hope cemetery with Spooner Funeral Home in charge of arrangements. To this union two daughters, Mrs. Keo Shively and Mrs. Fannie Huss, both of Sargent were born.

He was a charter member of the Odd Fellows Lodge, joining in February 18, Moore celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary on Jan. Moore preceded him in death, also his parents, four brothers and two sisters. Survivors include two daughters, Mrs. Fannie Huss and Mrs. Keo Shively, Sargent, six grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.

She came with her parents to Loup City, Nebraska the year by way of a covered wagon. A years later she came to Sargent, Nebraska where she has made her home ever since. She joined the Christian Church in the year On January 23, , she was united in marriage to Milo H. Moore of Sargent, Nebraska. Moore celebrated their golden wedding anniversary on January 23, at which time their children and grandchildren were all present for the occasion.

At the time of her death Mr. Moore had been married 63 years and 8 months. Interment was made in the Sargent Cemetery. She also leaves to mourn three step-grandchildren, Irene Young, Nona Gibson and Leonard Shively; and a number of nieces and nephews and a host of friends. Moore was preceded in death by her parents, five brothers and one sister.

She was a wonderful mother, always so loving, gentle and kind, and considerate of everyone concerned. She never complained during all of life's strife and struggles.

She was everything that God could give a family to make a loving home complete. September 25, , Mt. December 02, , Custer, NE; d. October 04, , Sargent, Custer, NE; m. October 01, , NE; d. Helen Huss sang, accompanied by Mrs. Interment was made at the Mt. She spent her early childhood on a farm a few miles east of Sargent. She received her education in the school at Sargent, and later she clerked in the Abbott's Variety Store here. They were the parents of one daughter, Wilma.

Their life was devoted to farming in the Sargent area. After his passing, she moved into Sargent where she resided until her death.

She was also a member of the Walworth Ladies Aid west of town a few miles near her farm. She was preceded in death by her husband, by her parents, by one step-daughter and one son-in-law. She leaves to mourn her passing, a daughter, Wilma and her husband Bob Johnson of Lewisville, Ohio; grandchildren, Marty and wife Jan and Jim of Ohio; and the following step-children, Nona Gibson of Sargent, Leonard and Lydia Shively of Kearney; son-in-law, Ralph Young of Sargent, by eight grandchildren, 15 great-grandchildren; and by one sister, Mrs.

April 27, , Custer, NE; d. January 17, , Sargent, Custer, NE; m. September 22, , Nebraska City, NE; d. November 21, , Sargent, Custer, NE. Huss a white person of 22 years of age, a resident of Sargent, Nebraska, born in Nebraska and whose father's name was J.

Huss and mother's maiden name was Teresa Miller and also with Miss Fannie Moore a white person 22 years of age, a resident of Sargent, Nebraska born in Nebraska and whose father's name was M. Moore and whose mother's maiden name was Martie Dye and who are the parties for the marriage of whom a license is applied for.

Said parties are of sound mind and unmarried, are not cousins or related in any degree prohibited by the laws of this state from contracting marriage, and may lawfully contract and be joined in marriage. The above statements are correct in every particular to the best of my knowledge, information and belief. Huss for License for the marriage of Mr. Huss as above recorded that the said parties are of competent age and condition to marry. This is to certify, that on the 14th day of September A.

Dwight Ford Judge of the County Court. Lincoln Star - Dec. Moore, 50 years old, died Friday night at the home, E. Funeral services will be held at 3 p. Sunday at the home - Rev. Interment will be in Wyuka Cemetery. Sargent Leader, Custer Co. Milo returned to Sargent Monday morning and Ward and his son returned Tuesday evening. More about Will Moore will be found in another part of this issue. William Moore Last week we told our readers that Milo and Ward Moore were called to Lincoln because of an operation underwent by their brother, Will Moore, and we also inferred that his condition was so serious that the doctors there did not hold out any hopes as to his recovery.

In the night Friday a telephone message came to Milo Moore stating that Will had died at the hospital that night at The funeral was held at the home in Lincoln Sunday afternoon, December 5th, and interment was made in the Wyuka Cemetery just east of the city. William Moore was born at Goshen, Elkart county, Indiana, April 29th, , and died at Lincoln, Nebraska, December 3rd, , at the age of 50 years, 7 months, and 4 days.

In April, , he came to Custer county, Nebraska, with his parents Mr. Very soon after arriving here the boy Will, then about fourteen years of age, began working on the farm for the editor's father, M. Livermore and he worked for him for two seasons. He was an industrious boy and always gave satisfactory service for whomever he worked.

We recall that the winter of he attended school here in Sargent, but we cannot state as to whether he went to school after that. Will Moore continued to work out until after his marriage which took place the fall of to Miss Catharine Kittie Copp, daughter of Rev. Copp being for a few years pastor of the Christian Church at Coburg. The next spring after his marriage he began to farm for himself, the summer of living on and farming part of what is now known as the Eliza Davis farm a mile east of town.

He continued to farm in this valley until the spring of when he made a public sale and disposed of all his stock and farm machinery. Following this sale he moved his family to Stanton, Nebraska, where he and David Belchor, who formerly was engaged in the implement business in this city, formed a partnership and engaged in the implement business.

He followed this business a number of years gradually acquiring a knowledge of the business that added to his natural ability, enabled him to secure a position as a traveling implement salesman, a work in which he was engaged at the time of his death. A few years ago he and his son Russell formed a partnership and owned and operated a grocery store in Lincoln, the latter having charge of the store while the father retained his job as a traveling salesman.

Will Moore were the parents of six children, three boys and three girls. In the order of their age they are; Russell; Ollie, now Mrs. Curtis Hoke; Gladys, Mrs. Gladys Keller deceased; Sadie, Mrs.

Sadie Gartner; William and John all of Lincoln. In addition to his children he leaves to mourn his death, his wife and three brothers, Milo of this place, Ward of Loup County, and Charles of Merrill, Iowa, and one sister, Mrs. June 16, , NE; d. Lincoln, Lancaster, NE; m. September 29, , IL; d. August , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE.

October 19, , NE; d. March , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE; m. December , NE; d. December , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE; m. September , Stanton, NE; d. February 06, , Lancaster, NE; d. She was born March in IA. Final Decree Now on this 13th day of November, at 10 o'clock a.

Sherman in the estate of Edgar M. Moore, deceased, and the petitioner appearing in person and by his attorney, Alpha Morgan, and thereupon hearing was had and Harry A. Sherman and Fay W. Spooner were each duly sworn, testified and their evidence reduced to writing, and having heard the proofs, allegations and evidence, and having jurisdiction over all the parties and subject matter, the court proceeds to make final settlement of this estate, and in so doing finds the evidence as follows; The Court finds that notice of the hearing on the petition filed by Harry A.

Sherman has been given in accordance to law and the orders of this court; that the said Edgar M. Moore died intestate on or about the 25th day of February, and at the time of his death was a resident and inhabitant of Custer County, Nebraska. The court further finds that at the time of the death of the said Edgar M. The court further finds that the said Edgar M.

Moore died seized of the following described real estate, to-wit; Commencing at the Northwest corner of Block numbered 3 of the original town of Sargent according to the recorded plat thereof, thence running east along the north line of said block one hundred seventeen feet, thence south, parallel with the west line of the said block, feet, thence west, parallel with the north line of said block, feet, to the west line of said block, thence north, along said west line, feet to place of beginning, which descended to and title vested in said Anna May Carson, the daughter subject only to the dower interest of the widow Mabel Clyde Moore, now Mabel Clyde Waters in and to said real estate as provided by law.

The court further finds that all debts, claims and demands against said estate and all the expenses connected with this proceeding have been fully paid, and that said real estate described herein is wholly exempt from execution, attachment, or other means process and is not liable for the payment of any debts of the decease. It is therefore considered, ordered, adjudged and decreed by the court that the real estate of decedent, to-wit; see above It is further considered, ordered, adjudged and decreed by the court that the regular administration of said estate be, and the same hereby is dispensed with, and that said estate be, and the same hereby is fully closed and settled.

Done in open court this 15th day of November, N. January , Custer, NE; m. Named as the daughter of Edgar M. Moore in the Will of William Henry Moore. The Sargent Leader Sargent, Custer County, Nebraska, Thursday, February 17, , page 1 Ward Moore answers the final summons Last week we told our readers that just before going to press Friday afternoon the condition of Ward Moore, was much better than it had been for a couple of days previous.

However, that night a change for the worse came and despite everything that doctor and nurse could do, his condition soon reached a point when human help was powerless to stay the hand of death which was tightening its relentless grip upon the patient.

He had been apprised of his condition and bid his friends, relatives and dear ones, good by and faced towards death as calmly and as resolutely as he had always faced the trials of life. Because of his intense suffering caused by the rapidly spreading peritonitis, the patient was kept under the influence of an opiate in order to deaden the pain. Otherwise he would have probably been conscious and his mind perfectly clear until death, which occurred shortly before eleven o'clock p. The editors watch gave the time as seventeen minutes before eleven when Dr.

Fenstermacher said, "He is gone. At the age for two years his parents moved to Missouri where they lived until he was nearly nine years of age. In April, , they came to Custer county, Nebraska, locating on a homestead two miles east and a mile and a quarter south of Sargent. A year or two later they traded for the farm Milo Moore now owns, moving on to it and residing there for something like fifteen years. As both of these farms were located in the Sargent school district, Ward received his schooling here in Sargent but at at time when we had a one room and one teacher school.

He was ambitious and so decided to teach and accordingly, the summer of , went to Broken Bow and attended the teachers' institute, he and the editor rooming together. That fall and winter he taught in one of the Bohemian districts in the hills east of Sargent. If we remember correctly, he taught there the next year. For several winters he taught school, one or two years being in the Cummings Park district. The editor doesn't recall just what winter that was, but we believe it was the winter of that Ward Moore attended a series of meetings held in the Longwood school house by a Reverent Lesan a Church of Christ preacher.

While these meetings were in progress he professed conversion and was baptized by immersion one Sunday morning by Rev. The ice was cut from a small portion of a bayou about five miles down the river from the Sergent bridge and there he and several others were baptized that forenoon.

The editor went on horseback to see this baptizing, going especially because of Ward's invitation. He hadn't much more than received the third degree than he came to the editor's home and the result was that the editor took the initiatory degree in that order New Year's night, We give this to show that whatever he did, Ward was always an enthusiastic worker in that line of work.

On September 29th, , he was united in marriage to Mattie Williams of Taylor. Until February, , they lived on the William's farm near Taylor.

Then they moved onto the farm now owned by O. Scott two miles east and a half mile north of Sargent. Ward's father owned this farm. He had just died that February. He farmed that piece one year. Feb , they moved to Sargent where they resided until the following December, when they moved back to the farm at Taylor. The last few years they have been living on a farm just north of Cummings Park. Ward Moore were born three children, Thomas W. Moore aged 19, Olivia 17, and Mary S. Besides his wife and children, he leaves to mourn their loss, two brothers, Milo of Sargent and Charles of Merrill, Iowa, and one sister, Mrs.

Mutter of Ord, Nebraska. The funeral was held in the M. Church last Tuesday afternoon, beginning at two o'clock. It was directed by the members of Sargent Lodge, No. John Coltrane lead as Noble Grand, Rev. Rose, pastor of the M. Church offered prayer and J. Reel, pastor of the Christian Church gave the address. Elwin Davis presiding at the piano. The casket was covered with very beautiful flowers. The church was packed with people there being a number from Taylor. Following the last song by the quartette the remains were viewed by those present and were then taken to the Sargent Cemetery where they were interred.

At the time of his death, Saturday, February 12th, , Ward Moore was forty five years, nine months, and four days of age. Indiana, residing in Sargent, Nebr. Son of Henry W. Moore and Olivia M. Williams and Mary E. Mutter and Fannie E. Mutter of Comstock passed away at the Weeks hospital in Ord, Nebraska, where she submitted to an operation on Friday for the removal of a very large tumor.

The operation was performed by Dr. The funeral was held in the Presbyterian church at Ord at 2: Interment was made in the Ord cemetery. The Leader Editor first became acquainted with Mrs. Mutter when she was a little girl, her parents Mr. As we have not yet received an obituary we will leave our article over until next week. We greatly sympathize with all her relatives. A terrible shock to family and friends was the death Saturday, Jan. Orin Mutter, of Comstock, who passed away in Hillcrest sanitarium where a few days before she underwent major surgical treatment.

The operation was successful and Mrs. Mutter was thought to be on the road to recovery when she suffered a relapse and passed away. Moore was born in Oregon, Mo. As a young child she moved with her parents to Custer county in and they lived on a farm close to Sargent. On November 8, , she was united in marriage to Orin B. For seven years they lived at Sargent, then moved to Ord and Mr.

Mutter opened a photographic studio here which he conducted until In that year the family moved to Comstock and that town was Mrs.

Mutter were born three children, Richard B. Mutter of Newton, Kas. Mutter of Comstock and Mrs. Marshall Fuller of Chicago. Also left to mourn are her husband, one grandchild, two brothers, Milo H. Moore of Sargent and Charlie J. Moore of Akron, Ia. Affiliated with the Presbyterian church, Mrs. Mutter remained a faithful member of that denomination until her departure.

She was a woman of fine upright character who took great interest in the welfare of her home and family and also of the community in which she lived. Loved by all whose privilege it was to know her, her death leaves a void in the hearts of friends that can never be filled.

Funeral rites were held at the Presbyterian church in Ord at 2: Reudink, of Arcadia, preaching a beautiful sermon. Pallbearers were Frank Johnson and C. Burial was in the Ord cemetery. August 12, , Custer, NE; d.

December 23, , Contra Costa, CA. March 22, , Custer or Valley, NE; d. March 24, , Westminster, Orange, CA. March 22, , Valley, NE; d. September 21, , Randolph, IN; d. She was born August in IN.

July , Randolph, IN. She was born October in IN. July 27, , Randolph, IN. February , Randolph, IN. September , Randolph, IN. September 11, , Randolph, IN. June , Randolph, IN. July 25, , Henry, IN; d. February , Muncie, Delaware, IN; m. March 03, , Henry, IN; d. February 23, , Jeffersonville, Clark, IN; m.

March 07, , IL; d. June 11, , Jeffersonville, Clark, IN. December 03, , Henry, IN; d. June 28, , Henry, IN. October 07, , Henry, IN. October , Delaware, IN. March , Delaware, IN; m. July 24, , Henry, IN. January 04, , Delaware, IN; d. November 14, , Eaton, Delaware, IN; m. January 04, , Delaware, IN. December 21, , Henry, IN; d.

July 26, , IN; d. November 23, , Hotchkiss, Delta, CO. October 04, , Henry, IN; d. June 26, , Largo, Pinellas, FL; m. December 27, , IN; d.

April 16, , Largo, Pinellas, FL. March 10, , Henry, IN; d. August 09, , Denver,CO; m. She was born February in MO. Elected to the Kansas Legislature, , 47th District. February 22, , Greenwood, KS; d. February , Eureka, Greenwood, KS; m. February 17, , KS; d. December , Eureka, Greenwood, KS. October 20, , Greenwood, KS; d. He was born March in Germany, and died Bef.

Son George living in the home with Rebec ca. June , Hitchcock , NE. January 09, , Hitchcock , NE; d. December 01, , Hitchcock , NE; d. December 21, , Culbertson, Hitchcock, NE; m. May 14, , NE; d. September , Culbertson, Hitchcock, NE. April 05, , Hitchcock , NE; d.

May , Englewood, Arapahoe, CO; m. October , Hitchcock , NE; m. August 11, , Webster , NE; d. January 25, , Red Willow, NE; m. September 15, , NE; d. September , Benkelman, Dundy, NE. Notes for JAY C. September 21, , Red Willow, NE; d. October 25, ; m.

July 12, , Red Willow, NE; d. December 15, ; m. September 22, , Red Willow, NE; d. January 23, , Eugene, Lane, OR; m. December 20, , Red Willow, NE; d. January 10, ; m. January 08, , Red Willow, NE; d. March 28, , Red Willow, NE; d. March 11, , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE; m. November 26, , Trenton, Hitchcock, NE; d. December 31, , Lincoln, Lancaster, NE.

December 05, , Red Willow, NE; d. May 10, , KS; d. August 12, , Red Willow, NE; d. June 09, , NE; d. September 05, , Red Willow, NE; d. April 22, , Red Willow, NE; d. September 12, , Fullerton, Orange, CA; m. October 22, , NE; d. May , Fullerton, Orange, CA. She was born October in Woodson, KS. May 13, , Woodson, KS; d. October 19, , San Mateo, CA; m. October 29, , Woodson, KS; d. December 10, , San Francisco, CA; m.

March 22, , CA; d. November 04, , San Mateo, CA. March 19, , IA; d.

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