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In the s the Tyler and Polk administrations —49 successfully promoted this nationalistic doctrine. However the Whig Party , which represented business and financial interests, stood opposed to Manifest Destiny. Whig leaders such as Henry Clay and Abraham Lincoln called for deepening the society through modernization and urbanization instead of simple horizontal- expansion.
John Quincy Adams , an anti-slavery Whig, felt the Texas annexation in to be "the heaviest calamity that ever befell myself and my country". Mexico became independent of Spain in , and took over Spain's northern possessions stretching from Texas to California. Santa Fe was also the trailhead for the "El Camino Real" the King's Highway , a trade route which carried American manufactured goods southward deep into Mexico and returned silver, furs, and mules northward not to be confused with another "Camino Real" which connected the missions in California.
The Spanish and Mexican governments attracted American settlers to Texas with generous terms. Austin became an "empresario", receiving contracts from the Mexican officials to bring in immigrants.
In doing so, he also became the de facto political and military commander of the area. Tensions rose, however, after an abortive attempt to establish the independent nation of Fredonia in William Travis , leading the "war party", advocated for independence from Mexico, while the "peace party" led by Austin attempted to get more autonomy within the current relationship. When Mexican president Santa Anna shifted alliances and joined the conservative Centralist party, he declared himself dictator and ordered soldiers into Texas to curtail new immigration and unrest.
However, immigration continued and 30, Anglos with 3, slaves were settled in Texas by Congress declined to annex Texas, stalemated by contentious arguments over slavery and regional power.
Thus, the Republic of Texas remained an independent power for nearly a decade before it was annexed as the 28th state in The government of Mexico, however, viewed Texas as a runaway province and asserted its ownership. Mexico refused to recognize the independence of Texas in , but the U. Mexico threatened war if Texas joined the U. American negotiators were turned away by a Mexican government in turmoil.
When the Mexican army killed 16 American soldiers in disputed territory war was at hand. Whigs , such as Congressman Abraham Lincoln denounced the war, but it was quite popular outside New England. The Mexican strategy was defensive; the American strategy was a three pronged offensive, using large numbers of volunteer soldiers. From the main American base at New Orleans, General Zachary Taylor led forces into northern Mexico, winning a series of battles that ensued.
Navy transported General Winfield Scott to Veracruz. He then marched his 12,man force west to Mexico City, winning the final battle at Chapultepec. Talk of acquiring all of Mexico fell away when the army discovered the Mexican political and cultural values were so alien to America's.
As the Cincinnati Herald asked, what would the U. The Gadsden Purchase in added southern Arizona, which was needed for a railroad route to California. In all Mexico ceded half a million square miles 1. Managing the new territories and dealing with the slavery issue caused intense controversy, particularly over the Wilmot Proviso , which would have outlawed slavery in the new territories. Congress never passed it, but rather temporarily resolved the issue of slavery in the West with the Compromise of California entered the Union in as a free state; the other areas remained territories for many years.
The new state grew rapidly as migrants poured into the fertile cotton lands of east Texas. The central area of the state was developed more by subsistence farmers who seldom owned slaves. Texas in its Wild West days attracted men who could shoot straight and possessed the zest for adventure, "for masculine renown, patriotic service, martial glory and meaningful deaths". In about 10, Californios Hispanics lived in California, primarily on cattle ranches in what is now the Los Angeles area.
A few hundred foreigners were scattered in the northern districts, including some Americans. With the outbreak of war with Mexico in the U. Army unit, as well as naval forces, and quickly took control. Thousands of "Forty-Niners" reached California, by sailing around South America or taking a short-cut through disease-ridden Panama , or walked the California trail.
The population soared to over , in , mostly in the gold districts that stretched into the mountains east of San Francisco. Housing in San Francisco was at a premium, and abandoned ships whose crews had headed for the mines were often converted to temporary lodging. In the gold fields themselves living conditions were primitive, though the mild climate proved attractive. Supplies were expensive and food poor, typical diets consisting mostly of pork, beans, and whiskey.
These highly male, transient communities with no established institutions were prone to high levels of violence, drunkenness, profanity, and greed-driven behavior. Without courts or law officers in the mining communities to enforce claims and justice, miners developed their own ad hoc legal system, based on the "mining codes" used in other mining communities abroad. Each camp had its own rules and often handed out justice by popular vote, sometimes acting fairly and at times exercising vigilantism—with Indians, Mexicans, and Chinese generally receiving the harshest sentences.
The gold rush radically changed the California economy and brought in an array of professionals, including precious metal specialists, merchants, doctors, and attorneys, who added to the population of miners, saloon keepers, gamblers, and prostitutes. A San Francisco newspaper stated, "The whole country Violent bandits often preyed upon the miners, such as the case of Jonathan R.
Davis ' killing of eleven bandits single-handedly. In a few years, nearly all of the independent miners were displaced as mines were purchased and run by mining companies, who then hired low-paid salaried miners. As gold became harder to find and more difficult to extract, individual prospectors gave way to paid work gangs, specialized skills, and mining machinery.
Bigger mines, however, caused greater environmental damage. In the mountains, shaft mining predominated, producing large amounts of waste. Beginning in , at the end of the '49 gold rush, through , hydraulic mining was used. Despite huge profits being made, it fell into the hands of a few capitalists, displaced numerous miners, vast amounts of waste entered river systems, and did heavy ecological damage to the environment.
Hydraulic mining ended when public outcry over the destruction of farmlands led to the outlawing of this practice. The mountainous areas of the triangle from New Mexico to California to South Dakota contained hundreds of hard rock mining sites, where prospectors discovered gold, silver, copper and other minerals as well as some soft-rock coal.
Temporary mining camps sprang up overnight; most became ghost towns when the ores were depleted. Prospectors spread out and hunted for gold and silver along the Rockies and in the southwest.
The wealth from silver, more than from gold, fueled the maturation of San Francisco in the s and helped the rise of some of its wealthiest families, such as that of George Hearst. To get to the rich new lands of the West Coast, there were two options: They moved in large groups under an experienced wagonmaster, bringing their clothing, farm supplies, weapons, and animals. These wagon trains followed major rivers, crossed prairies and mountains, and typically ended in Oregon and California.
Pioneers generally attempted to complete the journey during a single warm season, usually over the course of six months. By , when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri , a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho.
Trails were cleared further and further west, eventually reaching all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This network of wagon trails leading to the Pacific Northwest was later called the Oregon Trail. The eastern half of the route was also used by travelers on the California Trail from , Mormon Trail from , and Bozeman Trail from before they turned off to their separate destinations.
In the "Wagon Train of ", some to 1, emigrants headed for Oregon; missionary Marcus Whitman led the wagons on the last leg. Some did so because they were discouraged and defeated. Some returned with bags of gold and silver. Most were returning to pick up their families and move them all back west. These "gobacks" were a major source of information and excitement about the wonders and promises—and dangers and disappointments—of the far West.
Not all emigrants made it to their destination. The dangers of the overland route were numerous: One particularly well-known example of the treacherous nature of the journey is the story of the ill-fated Donner Party , which became trapped in the Sierra Nevada mountains during the winter of — in which nearly half of the 90 people traveling with the group died from starvation and exposure, and some resorted to cannibalism to survive.
There were also frequent attacks from bandits and highwaymen , such as the infamous Harpe brothers who patrolled the frontier routes and targeted migrant groups. In Missouri and Illinois, animosity between the Mormon settlers and locals grew, which would mirror those in other states such as Utah years later. Violence finally erupted on October 24, when militias from both sides clashed and a mass killing of Mormons in Livingston County occurred 6 days later. A hundred rural Mormon settlements sprang up in what Young called " Deseret ", which he ruled as a theocracy.
It later became Utah Territory. Young's Salt Lake City settlement served as the hub of their network, which reached into neighboring territories as well. The communalism and advanced farming practices of the Mormons enabled them to succeed.
The great threat to the Mormons in Utah was the U. The Republican Party swore to destroy polygamy, which it saw as an affront to religious, cultural and moral values of a modern civilization. Confrontations verged on open warfare in the late s as President Buchanan sent in troops. Although there were no military battles fought, and negotiations led to a stand down, violence still escalated and there were a number of casualties.
Finally in the Church leadership announced polygamy was no longer a central tenet, and a compromise was reached, with Utah becoming a state and the Mormons dividing into Republicans and Democrats. The federal government provided subsidies for the development of mail and freight delivery, and by , Congress authorized road improvements and an overland mail service to California. The new commercial wagon trains service primarily hauled freight.
In John Butterfield —69 established a stage service that went from Saint Louis to San Francisco in 24 days along a southern route. William Russell, hoping to get a government contract for more rapid mail delivery service, started the Pony Express in , cutting delivery time to ten days. In Congress passed the Land-Grant Telegraph Act which financed the construction of Western Union's transcontinental telegraph lines. Hiram Sibley , Western Union's head, negotiated exclusive agreements with railroads to run telegraph lines along their right-of-way.
Eight years before the transcontinental railroad opened, the First Transcontinental Telegraph linked Omaha, Nebraska and San Francisco and points in-between on October 24, Constitutionally, Congress could not deal with slavery in the states but it did have jurisdiction in the western territories.
California unanimously rejected slavery in and became a free state. New Mexico allowed slavery, but it was rarely seen there. Kansas was off limits to slavery by the Compromise of Free Soil elements feared that if slavery were allowed rich planters would buy up the best lands and work them with gangs of slaves, leaving little opportunity for free white men to own farms. Few Southern planters were actually interested in Kansas, but the idea that slavery was illegal there implied they had a second-class status that was intolerable to their sense of honor, and seemed to violate the principle of state's rights.
With the passage of the extremely controversial Kansas—Nebraska Act in , Congress left the decision up to the voters on the ground in Kansas. Across the North a new major party was formed to fight slavery: To influence the territorial decision, anti-slavery elements also called "Jayhawkers" or "Free-soilers" financed the migration of politically determined settlers. But pro-slavery advocates fought back with pro-slavery settlers from Missouri.
The antislavery forces took over by , as Kansas became a free state. The episode demonstrated that a democratic compromise between North and South over slavery was impossible and served to hasten the Civil War.
Despite its large territory, the trans-Mississippi West had a small population and its wartime story has to a large extent been underplayed in the historiography of the American Civil War. The Confederacy engaged in several important campaigns in the West. However, Kansas, a major area of conflict building up to the war, was the scene of only one battle, at Mine Creek.
But its proximity to Confederate lines enabled pro-Confederate guerrillas, such as Quantrill's Raiders , to attack Union strongholds and massacre the residents. In Texas, citizens voted to join the Confederacy; anti-war Germans were hanged.
Confederate Arizona was created by Arizona citizens who wanted protection against Apache raids after the United States Army units were moved out. The Confederacy then sets its sight to gain control of the New Mexico Territory. General Henry Hopkins Sibley was tasked for the campaign, and together with his New Mexico Army , marched right up the Rio Grande in an attempt to take the mineral wealth of Colorado as well as California.
The First Regiment of Volunteers discovered the rebels, and they immediately warned and joined the Yankees at Fort Union. The Battle of Glorieta Pass soon erupted, and the Union ended the Confederate campaign and the area west of Texas remained in Union hands.
Missouri , a Union state where slavery was legal, became a battleground when the pro-secession governor, against the vote of the legislature, led troops to the federal arsenal at St. Louis ; he was aided by Confederate forces from Arkansas and Louisiana. Louis and all of Missouri for the Union.
The state was the scene of numerous raids and guerrilla warfare in the west. Army after established a series of military posts across the frontier, designed to stop warfare among Indian tribes or between Indians and settlers. Throughout the 19th century, Army officers typically served built their careers in peacekeeper roles moving from fort to fort until retirement.
Actual combat experience was uncommon for any one soldier. The most dramatic conflict was the Sioux war in Minnesota in , when Dakota tribes systematically attacked German farms in an effort to drive out the settlers.
Over a period of several days, Dakota attacks at the Lower Sioux Agency , New Ulm and Hutchinson , slaughtered to white settlers. The state militia fought back and Lincoln sent in federal troops. The federal government tried Indians for murder, and were convicted and sentenced to death. Lincoln pardoned the majority, but 38 leaders were hanged. The decreased presence of Union troops in the West left behind untrained militias; hostile tribes used the opportunity to attack settlers.
The militia struck back hard, most notably by attacking the winter quarters of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians, filled with women and children, at the Sand Creek massacre in eastern Colorado in late Kit Carson and the U. Army in trapped the entire Navajo tribe in New Mexico, where they had been raiding settlers, and put them on a reservation.
In , Congress enacted two major laws to facilitate settlement of the West: The result by was millions of new farms in the Plains states, many operated by new immigrants from Germany and Scandinavia.
With the war over and slavery abolished, the federal government focused on improving the governance of the territories. It subdivided several territories, preparing them for statehood, following the precedents set by the Northwest Ordinance of It standardized procedures and the supervision of territorial governments, taking away some local powers, and imposing much "red tape", growing the federal bureaucracy significantly.
Federal involvement in the territories was considerable. In addition to direct subsidies, the federal government maintained military posts, provided safety from Indian attacks, bankrolled treaty obligations, conducted surveys and land sales, built roads, staffed land offices, made harbour improvements, and subsidized overland mail delivery.
Territorial citizens came to both decry federal power and local corruption, and at the same time, lament that more federal dollars were not sent their way. Territorial governors were political appointees and beholden to Washington so they usually governed with a light hand, allowing the legislatures to deal with the local issues. In addition to his role as civil governor, a territorial governor was also a militia commander, a local superintendent of Indian affairs, and the state liaison with federal agencies.
The legislatures, on the other hand, spoke for the local citizens and they were given considerable leeway by the federal government to make local law. These improvements to governance still left plenty of room for profiteering. As Mark Twain wrote while working for his brother, the secretary of Nevada, "The government of my country snubs honest simplicity, but fondles artistic villainy, and I think I might have developed into a very capable pickpocket if I had remained in the public service a year or two.
In acquiring, preparing, and distributing public land to private ownership, the federal government generally followed the system set forth by the Land Ordinance of Federal exploration and scientific teams would undertake reconnaissance of the land and determine Native American habitation. Through treaty, land title would be ceded by the resident tribes.
Townships would be formed from the lots and sold at public auction. As part of public policy, the government would award public land to certain groups such as veterans, through the use of "land script". As a counter to land speculators, farmers formed "claims clubs" to enable them to buy larger tracts than the acre 0.
In , Congress passed three important bills that transformed the land system. The Homestead Act granted acres 0. The only cost was a modest filing fee.
The law was especially important in the settling of the Plains states. Many took free homestead and others purchased their land from railroads at low rates. The Pacific Railway Acts of provided for the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad. The land given the railroads alternated with government-owned tracts saved for free distribution to homesteaders.
Railroads had up to five years to sell or mortgage their land, after tracks were laid, after which unsold land could be purchased by anyone. Often railroads sold some of their government acquired land to homesteaders immediately to encourage settlement and the growth of markets the railroads would then be able to serve.
Nebraska railroads in the s were strong boosters of lands along their routes. They sent agents to Germany and Scandinavia with package deals that included cheap transportation for the family as well as its furniture and farm tools, and they offered long-term credit at low rates. Boosterism succeeded in attracting adventurous American and European families to Nebraska , helping them purchase land grant parcels on good terms.
The selling price depended on such factors as soil quality, water, and distance from the railroad. The Morrill Act of provided land grants to states to begin colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts engineering. Black colleges became eligible for these land grants in The Act succeeded in its goals to open new universities and make farming more scientific and profitable. In the s government sponsored surveys to chart the remaining unexplored regions of the West, and to plan possible routes for a transcontinental railroad.
Regionalism animated debates in Congress regarding the choice of a northern, central or southern route. Engineering requirements for the rail route were an adequate supply of water and wood, and as nearly-level route as possible, given the weak locomotives of the era.
In the s proposals to build a transcontinental failed because of Congressional disputes over slavery. With the secession of the Confederate states in , the modernizers in the Republican party took over Congress and wanted a line to link to California. Private companies were to build and operate the line. Construction would be done by unskilled laborers who would live in temporary camps along the way.
Immigrants from China and Ireland did most of the construction work. Theodore Judah , the chief engineer of the Central Pacific surveyed the route from San Francisco east. Judah's tireless lobbying efforts in Washington were largely responsible for the passage of the Pacific Railroad Act , which authorized construction of both the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific which built west from Omaha. The line was completed in May Coast-to-coast passenger travel in 8 days now replaced wagon trains or sea voyages that took 6 to 10 months and cost much more.
The road was built with mortgages from New York, Boston and London, backed by land grants. There were no federal cash subsidies, But there was a loan to the Central Pacific that was eventually repaid at six percent interest. The federal government offered land-grants in a checkerboard pattern.
The railroad sold every-other square, with the government opening its half to homesteaders. Local and state governments also aided the financing.
Most of the manual laborers on the Central Pacific were new arrivals from China. He concludes that senior officials quickly realized the high degree of cleanliness and reliability of the Chinese. Ong explores whether or not the Chinese Railroad Workers were exploited by the railroad, with whites in the better positions. He finds the railroad set different wage rates for whites and Chinese and used the latter in the more menial and dangerous jobs, such as the handling and the pouring of nitroglycerin.
Building the railroad required six main activities: The work was highly physical, using horse-drawn plows and scrapers, and manual picks, axes, sledgehammers, and handcarts. A few steam-driven machines, such as shovels, were used. For blasting, they used black powder.
Six transcontinental railroads were built in the Gilded Age plus two in Canada ; they opened up the West to farmers and ranchers. All but the Great Northern of James J. Hill relied on land grants. The financial stories were often complex. For example, the Northern Pacific received its major land grant in Financier Jay Cooke — was in charge until , when he went bankrupt. Federal courts, however, kept bankrupt railroads in operation. In Henry Villard — took over and finally completed the line to Seattle.
But the line went bankrupt in the Panic of and Hill took it over. He then merged several lines with financing from J. Morgan , but President Theodore Roosevelt broke them up in In the first year of operation, —70, , passengers made the long trip. Settlers were encouraged with promotions to come West on free scouting trips to buy railroad land on easy terms spread over several years. The railroads had "Immigration Bureaus" which advertised package low-cost deals including passage and land on easy terms for farmers in Germany and Scandinavia.
The prairies, they were promised, did not mean backbreaking toil because "settling on the prairie which is ready for the plow is different from plunging into a region covered with timber".
All manufacturers benefited from the lower costs of transportation and the much larger radius of business. White concludes with a mixed verdict.
The transcontinentals did open up the West to settlement, brought in many thousands of high-tech, highly paid workers and managers, created thousands of towns and cities, oriented the nation onto an east—west axis, and proved highly valuable for the nation as a whole. On the other hand, too many were built, and they were built too far ahead of actual demand. The result was a bubble that left heavy losses to investors, and led to poor management practices. By contrast, as White notes, the lines in the Midwest and East supported by a very large population base, fostered farming, industry and mining while generating steady profits and receiving few government benefits.
The new railroads provided the opportunity for migrants to go out and take a look, with special family tickets, the cost of which could be applied to land purchases offered by the railroads. Farming the plains was indeed more difficult than back east. Water management was more critical, lightning fires were more prevalent, the weather was more extreme, rainfall was less predictable.
The fearful stayed home. The actual migrants looked beyond fears of the unknown. Their chief motivation to move west was to find a better economic life than the one they had. Farmers sought larger, cheaper and more fertile land; merchants and tradesman sought new customers and new leadership opportunities.
Laborers wanted higher paying work and better conditions. As settlers move West, they have to faced challenges along the way, such as the lack of wood for housing, bad weather like blizzards and droughts, and fearsome tornadoes. One of the greatest plague that hit the homesteaders was the Locust Plague which devastated the Great Plains.
On April 22, over , settlers and cattlemen known as "boomers"  lined up at the border, and when the army's guns and bugles giving the signal, began a mad dash to stake their claims in the Land Run of A witness wrote, "The horsemen had the best of it from the start.
It was a fine race for a few minutes, but soon the riders began to spread out like a fan, and by the time they reached the horizon they were scattered about as far as the eye could see".
In the same manner, millions of acres of additional land was opened up and settled in the following four years. Indian wars have occurred throughout the United States though the conflicts are generally separated into two categories; the Indian wars east of the Mississippi River and the Indian wars west of the Mississippi.
Bureau of the Census provided an estimate of deaths:. The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19, white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30, Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate Historian Russell Thornton estimates that from to , the Indian population declined from , to as few as , The depopulation was principally caused by disease as well as warfare.
Many tribes in Texas, such as the Karankawan , Akokisa , Bidui and others, were extinguished due to conflicts with settlers. Government, and the Doolittle Committee was formed to investigate the causes as well recommendations to save the population.
The expansion of migration into the Southeastern United States in the s to the s forced the federal government to deal with the "Indian question". The Indians were under federal control but were independent of state governments.
State legislatures and state judges had no authority on their lands, and the states demanded control. Politically the new Democratic Party of President Andrew Jackson demanded removal of the Indians out of the southeastern states to new lands in the west, while the Whig Party and the Protestant churches were opposed to removal. The Jacksonian Democracy proved irresistible, as it won the presidential elections of , and By the "Indian Removal policy" began, to implement the act of Congress signed by Andrew Jackson in Many historians have sharply attacked Jackson.
To motivate natives reluctant to move, the federal government also promised rifles, blankets, tobacco, and cash. By the Cherokee, the last Indian nation in the South, had signed the removal treaty and relocated to Oklahoma.
All the tribes were given new land in the " Indian Territory " which later became Oklahoma. Of the approximate 70, Indians removed, about 18, died from disease, starvation, and exposure on the route. The impact of the removals was severe. The transplanted tribes had considerable difficulty adapting to their new surroundings and sometimes clashed with the tribes native to the area.
The only way for an Indian to remain and avoid removal was to accept the federal offer of acres 2. However, many natives who took the offer were defrauded by "ravenous speculators" who stole their claims and sold their land to whites. Of the five tribes, the Seminole offered the most resistance, hiding out in the Florida swamps and waging a war which cost the U. Indian warriors in the West, using their traditional style of limited, battle-oriented warfare, confronted the U.
The Indians emphasized bravery in combat while the Army put its emphasis not so much on individual combat as on building networks of forts, developing a logistics system, and using the telegraph and railroads to coordinate and concentrate its forces.
Plains Indian intertribal warfare bore no resemblance to the "modern" warfare practiced by the Americans along European lines, using its vast advantages in population and resources. Many tribes avoided warfare and others supported the U.
The tribes hostile to the government continued to pursue their traditional brand of fighting and, therefore, were unable to have any permanent success against the Army.
Indian wars were fought throughout the western regions, with more conflicts in the states bordering Mexico than in the interior states. Arizona ranked highest, with known battles fought within the state's boundaries between Americans and the natives. Arizona ranked highest in war deaths, with 4, killed, including soldiers, civilians and Native Americans.
That was more than twice as many as occurred in Texas, the second highest ranking state. Most of the deaths in Arizona were caused by the Apache. Michno also says that fifty-one percent of the Indian war battles between and took place in Arizona, Texas and New Mexico, as well as thirty-seven percent of the casualties in the county west of the Mississippi River. Indians included in this group attacked and harassed emigrant parties and miners crossing the Snake River Valley, which resulted in further retaliation of the white settlements and the intervention of the United States army.
The war resulted in a total of 1, men who have been killed, wounded, and captured from both sides. Unlike other Indian Wars, the Snake War was widely forgotten in United States history due to having only limited coverage of the war. The conflict was fought in — while the American Civil War was still ongoing. Caused by dissolution between the Natives and the white settlers in the region, the war was infamous for the atrocities done between the two parties.
White militias destroyed Native villages and killed Indian women and children such as the bloody Sand Creek massacre , and the Indians also raided ranches, farms and killed white families such as the American Ranch massacre and Raid on Godfrey Ranch. In —, Carson used a scorched earth policy in the Navajo Campaign , burning Navajo fields and homes, and capturing or killing their livestock.
He was aided by other Indian tribes with long-standing enmity toward the Navajos, chiefly the Utes. The Apaches under his command conducted ambushes on US cavalries and forts, such as their attack on Cibecue Creek , while also raiding upon prominent farms and ranches, such as their infamous attack on the Empire Ranch that killed three cowboys. During the Comanche Campaign , the Red River War was fought in —75 in response to the Comanche's dwindling food supply of buffalo, as well as the refusal of a few bands to be inducted in reservations.
The war finally ended with a final confrontation between the Comanches and the U. Cavalry in Palo Duro Canyon. The last Comanche war chief, Quanah Parker , surrendered in June , which would finally end the wars fought by Texans and Indians.
Red Cloud's War was led by the Lakota chief Red Cloud against the military who were erecting forts along the Bozeman trail. It was the most successful campaign against the U. By the Treaty of Fort Laramie , the U. With 53 Modoc warriors, Captain Jack held off 1, men of the U. Army for 7 months.
Captain Jack killed Edward Canby. Numbering only warriors, the Nez Perce "battled some 2, American regulars and volunteers of different military units, together with their Indian auxiliaries of many tribes, in a total of eighteen engagements, including four major battles and at least four fiercely contested skirmishes. The conflict began after repeated violations of the Treaty of Fort Laramie once gold was discovered in the hills.
The end of the Indian wars came at the Wounded Knee massacre on December 29, where the 7th Cavalry attempted to disarm a Sioux man and precipitated an engagement in which about Sioux men, women, and children were killed. Only thirteen days before, Sitting Bull had been killed with his son Crow Foot in a gun battle with a group of Indian police that had been sent by the American government to arrest him.
As the frontier moved westward, the establishment of U. They served as bases for troops at or near strategic areas, particularly for counteracting the Indian presence. Fort Laramie and Fort Kearny helped protect immigrants crossing the Great Plains and a series of posts in California protected miners. Forts were constructed to launch attacks against the Sioux. As Indian reservations sprang up, the military set up forts to protect them. Forts also guarded the Union Pacific and other rail lines.
Fort Omaha , Nebraska was home to the Department of the Platte , and was responsible for outfitting most Western posts for more than 20 years after its founding in the late s. Fort Huachuca in Arizona was also originally a frontier post and is still in use by the United States Army.
Settlers on their way overland to Oregon and California became targets of Indian threats. Munkres read 66 diaries of parties traveling the Oregon Trail between and to estimate the actual dangers they faced from Indian attacks in Nebraska and Wyoming.
The vast majority of diarists reported no armed attacks at all. However many did report harassment by Indians who begged or demanded tolls, and stole horses and cattle. A second treaty secured safe passage along the Santa Fe Trail for wagon trains. In return, the tribes would receive, for ten years, annual compensation for damages caused by migrants. In the Far West settlers began to occupy land in Oregon and California before the federal government secured title from the native tribes, causing considerable friction.
In Utah, the Mormons also moved in before federal ownership was obtained. A new policy of establishing reservations came gradually into shape after the boundaries of the "Indian Territory" began to be ignored. In providing for Indian reservations, Congress and the Office of Indian Affairs hoped to de-tribalize Native Americans and prepare them for integration with the rest of American society, the "ultimate incorporation into the great body of our citizen population".
Influential pioneer towns included Omaha , Nebraska City and St. American attitudes towards Indians during this period ranged from malevolence "the only good Indian is a dead Indian" to misdirected humanitarianism Indians live in "inferior" societies and by assimilation into white society they can be redeemed to somewhat realistic Native Americans and settlers could co-exist in separate but equal societies, dividing up the remaining western land.
Conflicts erupted in the s, resulting in various Indian wars. Such as in the case of Oliver Loving , they would sometimes attack cowboys and their cattle if ever caught crossing in the borders of their land. However, relationship between cowboys and Native Americans were more mutual than they are portrayed, and the former would occasionally pay a fine of 10 cents per cow for the latter to allow them to travel through their land. After the Civil War, as the volunteer armies disbanded, the regular army cavalry regiments increased in number from six to ten, among them Custer's U.
The black units, along with others both cavalry and infantry , collectively became known as the Buffalo Soldiers. According to Robert M. The frontier army was a conventional military force trying to control, by conventional military methods, a people that did not behave like conventional enemies and, indeed, quite often were not enemies at all. This is the most difficult of all military assignments, whether in Africa, Asia, or the American West. Westerners were proud of their leadership in the movement for democracy and equality, a major theme for Frederick Jackson Turner.
The new states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Ohio were more democratic than the parent states back East in terms of politics and society. By the West, especially California and Oregon, led the Progressive movement. Scholars have examined the social history of the west in search of the American character. The history of Kansas , argued historian Carl L.
Becker a century ago, reflects American ideals. It is a new grafted product of American individualism, American idealism, American intolerance. Kansas is America in microcosm. Scholars have compared the emergence of democracy in America with other countries, with reference to the frontier experience.
The American frontiersmen relied on individual effort, in the context of very large quantities of unsettled land with weak external enemies. Israel by contrast, operated in a very small geographical zone, surrounded by more powerful neighbors. The Jewish pioneer was not building an individual or family enterprise, but was a conscious participant in nation building, with a high priority on collective and cooperative planned settlements.
The Israeli pioneers brought in American experts on irrigation and agriculture to provide technical advice. However they rejected the American frontier model in favor of a European model that supported their political and security concerns.
Carter was very frugal in showing off her tits. So frugal, in fact, that Lester is forced to repeat one scene of a topless Carter making love to Gortner a second time later in the film. Marjoe Gortner has a natural screen presence and his starring turn here is a good one.
His portrayal of Lyle as a good-natured criminal who gets caught-up in violence seems natural and unforced. Scripter Zimmerman puts in constant swipes at religion in this film, highly unusual for an exploitationer.
Bobbie Jo and Pearl's mother, Hattie Peggy Stewart , is also a devout religious woman, yet her daughters turn out to be a strippers and women who can stand to be around her. Another taste of Zimmerman's distaste of religion comes when Sheriff Hicks and his men shoot-up a motel room only to discover that they have killed three innocent people inside.
Sheriff Hicks looks at the bullet-ridden, bloody bodies, turns to his deputy and says, "With the Lord's will, they is sinners! The violence doesn't kick-in until the second half of the film and it's mostly just bloody bullet squibs, although some of it is nasty.
Plenty of skin, plenty of violence and plenty of action. A Vestron Video Release. While Myra becomes "friends" i. Ben sends Ellie to the same location to retrieve the package from Larry and, while the plan is still unclear, you can bet it's as crooked as a hillbilly's teeth. What Ben, Eddy and Digger don't count on, though, is that Larry and Ellie hook-up and sleep together. Seeing this as a chance for her and Myra to finally disappear for good, Ellie steals the money and tells Myra to meet her in El Paso.
This sets off a series of violent encounters that finds Larry and Ellie trying to escape the clutches of Ben, Eddy and Digger. The finale shows that both Ellie and Myra are not the innocents they want everyone to believe they are. Maybe all those bad rumors about their dead mother are true after all. It doesn't end pleasantly for either Ellie or Myra, as one will end up dead and the other will end up all alone.
Don't expect a feel-good ending, because you get quite the opposite. Besides the ample naked assets of Tiffany Bolling, Robin Mattson and Lenore Stevens, there's plenty of bloody violence, softcore sex and a great cast of genre veterans.
There are a few scenes that really stand out, such as when Myra tells Diana that she's leaving for El Paso to be with her sister. Diana, who has been having a lesbian affair with Myra, doesn't want her to leave, but Myra unleashes this uncalled-for bit of dialogue in Diana's face: Myra proves to be the most unlikable character in the film, as she is the lynchpin for every bad thing that happens here.
She uses everyone including her sister to get her way and knows exactly what she is doing, using her teenage body to get people to do things they wouldn't normally do. If she didn't come-on to Charley's friends at a poker game in the beginning of the film, it wouldn't have led to the events that forced Ellie to shoot Charley.
It's no wonder that Myra's only true friend is her pet rat insert symbolism here. It's not until fairly late into the film that we discover that Myra picked up her character traits from her older sister, when Ellie finally shows her true colors with Larry. The film is full of quotable dialogue, but my favorite line comes when one of Charley's poker buddies spits out this nugget to describe Charley's demeanor: You're mean, miserable and de-mented!
I miss those days. Be sure to look for a young Sharon Gless in a blink-and-you'll-miss-it role as a greasy spoon waitress.
Also starring Luanne Roberts, Hedgeman Lewis and Max Showalter as Frank, a traveling gun salesman who plays an important role in the latter part of the film. Dark Sky Films has this on its release schedule for a DVD release, but take that with a grain of salt.
The journal explains Carlos' endeavors to end the DeLorca Curse, where all male members become vampires. He contacts Madame Von Kirst, a psychic, to try to find a way to end the curse. She tells him that he must choose four girls and offer them as hosts to his vampire nephew, Juan Chuck Faulkner.
One of them will become Juan's bride and have his child. The child will then be exorcized by Madame Von Kirst, ending the curse. Carlos has his mute servant Perro Bob Letizia give invitations to four beautiful girls, offering them a tour of Casa DeLorca. The girls come to the house, where Carlos takes them on a tour.
He then invites them to dinner the next evening to meet Juan. After dinner, the girls are tricked into spending the night. One of them is offered up in a "conjuration ritual" by Carlos, which consists of doping her up graphic needle-in-the-arm close-up and tying her down to an altar. The girl's boyfriend interrupts the ritual, knocking out Perro and Carlos and unknowingly unleashing a demon to cause havoc in Casa DeLorca. The demon possesses Perro, who slashes the throat of one of the remaining girls and then turns another one into a vampire.
The third girl, Yvonne Dolores Heiser , is chosen to bear the child and is raped by Juan. Meanwhile, the loose demon kills the first girl and her boyfriend a machete in the head before being dispatched by Carlos.
Yvonne is exorcized by Madame Von Kirst to rid the evil from her baby. Months pass as Yvonne is kept prisoner in the DeLorca house until the baby is born. She tricks Perro into taking her for a walk and throws him down the stairs and tries to escape the house. She runs into the room where the vampire girl is staying, forcing Carlos to stake the girl with a broom handle.
Seeing this, Juan chases Yvonne only to have her expose him to sunlight and dissolve. After Madame Von Kirst determines that the baby Yvonne is carrying is normal and the curse has been lifted, Carlos goes upstairs to tell Yvonne the good news.
When he opens the door he finds that Yvonne has broken a mirror and has plunged a giant shard of it into her stomach. This impossibly cheap horror film was filmed in Jacksonville, Florida by late director Robert R.
Filled with cheap 70's gore effects, garish 70's fashions, muttonchops and amateur acting, this film is a testament that anyone with a camera could make a film in the 70's and get it a release. It's hard to keep up with the story as the entire film is told in flashback and sometimes as a flashback within a flashback. This film does not have much going for it as it contains minimal nudity, a no-no for a film of this type.
The ending also makes no sense as the boy in the beginning states that he is the son of Juan, who has died in the film and Yvonne kills herself and her baby in the end.
Just when did Juan father this child? I could have thought of a better ending. After serving their stint while learning jungle warfare and making a hefty profit selling smack to hooked white soldiers, they return home and to the trouble they thought they left behind. When a local black girl is raped by Leroy and two of his white friends, Raymond gets even by beating the crap out of Leroy.
The black trio try to enact change in the town legally and non-violently by getting the local preacher to get all the black townspeople to register to vote, but when the townspeople show up at city hall to register, the crooked district attorney, who also heads the local KKK chapter as their "Grand Cyclops" he wears a pink KKK robe and hood!
The KKK then burn down the church, murder a local black boy who was about to attend college and kill the sheriff, the only white man in town who was fair with the blacks. The new sheriff who shot the old one in the head after calling him a "nigger lover" begins to terrorize the black population to find out where the troublesome trio are located, but they have already kidnapped Leroy and the district attorney and are holding them in a shack in the woods.
Don't you just love happy endings? This cheaply-made blaxploitation flick has lots of stock footage when the church is burned down, it's just stock footage of a house fire , bad acting and it takes forever to get moving. This film is nothing but a series of racial diatribes, as the white actors are required to say "nigger" at least one time in every line of dialogue. Add to that nothing but talk, talk, talk and too little action the final sequence lasts less than five minutes and what you end up with is an action film that is anything but.
There is only one instance of nudity the rape scene , several bloody bullet squibs and one throat slashing in the film's entire 77 minute running time. All that's left is plenty of racist dialogue on both sides of the coin , lame politics it seemed dated, even for and lots of amateur acting.
I will give the film a few points for superimposing it's end credits on a real KKK recruitment billboard, though. It's the film's most imaginative moment. Too bad you have to wallow through a lot of crap to get there.
It should come as no surprise that there is no on-screen screenplay credit Who would want to take credit for this crap? Ron David as Leroy is the film's best actor. He's actually convincing as the raping racist, which I find troubling. Older readers may remember Mr.
Clark as the spokesperson for Folger's Coffee in countless 80's TV commercials. Also available on Blu-Ray from Code Red. I write this review just a few days after Alex Rocco's untimely death and I'm glad to report that this is one sleazy gem and Rocco supplies a good percentage of the sleaze here.
Quinn uses the outhouse to take a shit, when four thugs on motorcycles stop at the station and tell Quinn to get out because the biker leader has to take a piss Jeez, the ground isn't good enough? When Quinn refuses, they shake the outhouse off its foundation and Quinn leaves, saying "Fuck you" to all four of them one of them makes a joke that Quinn's penis looked like a "Baby Tootsie Roll" , pulling out a shotgun and blasting them all to death he shoots two in the back after they try to get away.
We now know that none of these mercenaries have much in the way of humanity, except for Ross, who seems weary of the whole mercenary thing.
They become quick friends and decide to travel together. The Colonel is not interested in his offer and he plans on setting up camp a couple of miles from town in an abandoned quarry while he waits for more mercenaries to show up for an operation they are going to perform in Central America. Meanwhile, the mercenaries at the bar are getting drunk and having a good time, so Wicks offers the barmaid's father money so he can have sex with his daughter.
The father turns him down and Wicks shoots him in the hand. When the father complains to Sheriff Alvarez, Wicks puts a live hand grenade in the father's hand and the Sheriff has to toss it away before it explodes. The Sheriff tells the father, "It was his idea of a joke. Terry says she should have become a hooker because she likes to "ball".
Kevin tells her that he is in Mexico dodging the draft because he is a concientious objector and the thought of him killing anyone makes him sick.
He'll have to change that stance sooner than he thinks. They run into Wicks at the quarry and he invites them both to have lunch with the group. When the Colonel sees them, he tells Wicks to get rid of them after they eat.
They all pass a joint around and talk about death, when Wicks pulls out a stick of dynamite, lights the fuse and tosses it to Hill, who tosses it to another member, etc. As the fuse gets dangerously small, Ross makes Wicks pull the fuse out of the dynamite Ross is really sick of this psychotic behavior by his comrades. The mercenaries then show Terry how to fight, but Kevin gets increasingly mad and not just because he is a pacifist , especially when he sees Wicks putting his hands on her breasts.
I want to have her! Ross volunteers as one of the men because he wants to save Terry, not fuck her. During the fighting, Kevin escapes, so Quinn and Ross head into separate directions to catch him, with the Colonel telling them not to bring Kevin back alive. Ross has Kevin in his sights, but lets him go back into town.
Quinn accuses Ross of letting him go, saying "He ain't got it" because Ross refuses to kill for killing's sake. The fighting then starts to see who gets to fuck Terry and Ross beats Hill by almost killing him as he hangs from a tree Hill taps out and Wicks beats MacFarland unconscious with a tree branch and he wins his bout.
Wicks cheats and beats Ross, which make him the winner to screw Terry and he rapes Terry after tying her to the bed. He then cuts the ropes that binds her and says she is free to go, only to have all the other mercenaries sans Ross gang-rape her.
Kevin makes it to town, but Sheriff Alvarez is very unreceptive he won't even help Kevin after he shames the Sheriff in front of the rest of the town. Kevin heads back to the quarry by himself, where he sees Terry being treated like an animal, a rope tied around her neck like a leash. Kevin gets some much-needed help from Ross, as Kevin kills Wicks for making Terry say she is an animal.
When the Colonel sees Ross escaping with Terry and Kevin, the rest of the mercenaries head out on foot Ross has disabled the vehicles and soon it is Rambo time a good ten years before Rambo even drew first blood.
Hill and Ballard are killed by Ross' grenade booby trap. Ross seriously injures Quinn with a hand grenade and finishes him off with Quinn's own shotgun. In a real downer of a finale. The only good thing to happen in the finale is that the population of the small town get to see what a coward the Sheriff really is.
This short, minute film only exists to show how people can mistreat other people without having a conscience. Kevin is a coward who runs away from war, only to die at the hands of people worse than the Vietcong. Terry is one giant cocktease, who has no choice at the end but to kill and it is not in retribution for killing Kevin or Ross.
She does it strictly for her own personal reasons She proves she is an animal at the end. The only person in the entire film with a conscience is Ross, who does his damnedest to save Kevin and Terry, not knowing what kind of people these two really are; A coward and a whore.
The film is nothing but wall-to-wall violence and sexual abuse, but it has a cast of great character actors most who are no longer with us that rarely get together in any type of film. The film has the look and feel of a TV movie, which is not surprising since Jerry Jameson has been working in that medium since the early's.
It's the 's in Edinburgh, Scotland and two warring doctors, Dr. When an old man who was subletting one of their apartment rooms dies, Burke and Hare get the bright idea of selling his body to Dr. Knox, who is working on a new way to study the internal workings of the human body: When the old dead man won't fit into a barrel, they have to break his back to make him fit inside a funny visual later in the film. They take the body to Dr.
Knox, who offers them 5 Pounds for every fresh body they bring him. Hoping to score some sex with Ginny who is one of the greatest cockteases in film history , Burke agrees to finance her venture, which means they are going to have to actually kill people to supply Dr. Knox with more bodies.
Their first attempt at murder is a complete failure. They try pushing a drunk Paul Whitehouse down a long flight of stairs, but he simply gets up and goes on his merry way. They begin a murder spree one of their victims is Old Joseph, played by none other than Christopher Lee and begin to make a lot of money.
Lucky wants her husband to quit the killings when they have enough money to start the very first "funeral parlor", but Ginny's venture is costing Burke a fortune and proves their undoing. When Captain McLintoch is able to see the photographs and match them to the drawings of all the missing people, Burke, Hare, Lucky and an innocent Ginny are locked up.
Even back then the government would like to have something like this covered-up, so they make Burke and Hare and offer: If one of them confesses to the crimes, he will hang and the rest will go free They also make an offer to Captain McLintoch that he can't possibly refuse. Burke confesses to the crimes In reality, Hare sold him out and Ginny finally has sex with him on the night before he is to be executed.
When he is asked if he has any last words before the hangman's rope squeezes all the life out of his body, all Burke has to say is, "I did it for love". The government burns all the photographs, Ginny goes on to a successful career as an actress and Hare and Lucky open the first funeral parlor.
I'm afraid that what I have just written cannot describe how funny this entire film is. There were many times I found myself laughing out loud, like when their first body in a barrel gets away from them, when they try to make a freed slave Chris Obi one of their victims it takes Lucky to bring him down or when Tim Curry looks at a human foot like a horny man would look at a vagina.
The screenplay by Piers Ashworth and Nick Moorcroft is full of historical facts mixed with outright lies, but you won't care. You'll love the film for the funny visuals, dialogue and looks on Simon Pegg's face who is always a joy to watch, especially when he says things like "I had confidence in a fart once, and I shat all over myself.
Who would have thought that a serious and true subject like the lives of body snatchers Burke and Hare could be turned into one of the best comedies of not to mention giving a shout-out to Charles Darwin?
She then goes into a trance, straps on a vest bomb underneath her dress and heads down to the conference, where she detonates the bomb, killing everyone.
We then follow Canadian girl Denise Bernadette Williams as she is taken prisoner and driven to some remote camp in the Asian jungle. The warden of the camp, Van Duc Joe Mari Avellana , tells Denise that escape is impossible, but if she does what she is told, she will eventually be released. The camp is full of young female prisoners and it becomes apparent after a short while that the women are being "conditioned" i.
All it takes is a simple phone call s aying a particular phrase "The apples are dying! While Denise tries to find a way to escape, Van Duc discovers that one of the women prisoners, Linda Jennifer Lane , is actually an undercover CIA operative, so he has electrodes attached to her breasts and tortures her with electricity. When Pram tries to smuggle Denise out of the camp in the back of a truck and Van Duc is waiting for them at the front gate, it proves that one of the women prisoners is an informer.
But which one is it? All evidence points to Honey Taffy O'Connell , an American who sleeps with most of the guards and spends too much time in Van Duc's office, but that would be too easy. Denise and Pram still manage to escape, but Van Duc's men are only one step behind them. After they make love in a jungle cabin, Pram is shot dead by his fellow guards and Denise is brought back to the camp, where she is tortured.
All the girls are then loaded onto a train and told that they are going home, but that couldn't be farther from the truth. The train stops in the middle of a field and the guards gang-rape all the women and shoot those in the back that try to escape. The remaining women discover the identity of the informer, kill her and then take over the train, where they escape to the safety of a waiting helicopter.
Are the women actually saved or will a simple phone call turn them into explosive assassins? I'm afraid only time will tell. A lot of people believe that this is Filipino director Cirio H. Santiago's best film and I can't really fault them for thinking that.
While not as action-packed as most of Santiago's 80's films, it is better plotted than most script by frequent Santiago bit player Bobby Greenwood and probably contains more nudity than half a dozen of his other films put together. Santiago also tosses-in much more human drama than usual, especially the romance between Denise and Pram that ends tragically.
There is also a mystery element as we try to determine who's the informer and it's not as easy as you think. Santiago films the mass rape on the train as a series of slow-motion shots, edited in such a way as to show the fear and helplessness in all the women's faces while the guards leer and laugh and shoot women in the back like they were shooting skeet. It's a very effective sequence, as is Pram's gunfight with his fellow guards, which takes place next to a pen of loudly-chirping baby chicks.
This was also one of the few Santiago films that wasn't financed by Roger Corman. It's not very violent, but it's sleazy as hell. Not available on DVD. When it turns out that the shooting was staged so Lim and Marga could leave the country and live in New York, a monkey wrench is thrown into the gears when Marga is arrested and sentenced to spend the rest of her life on The Rock, an inescapable maximum security prison located on an Alcatraz-like island. Lim refuses to leave the country without his daughter and threatens to expose the American military's illegal dealings in his country , so Amanda agrees to go undercover as a prisoner on the island to break Marga out.
Unfortunately, Amanda accidentally gets American tourist Lucy Susan Harvey arrested at the airport she has a suitcase full of illegal porn films! Amanda has it hard, trying to protect Lucy from butch prisoner Paula Pamella D'Pella and reasoning with Marga to escape with her from the prison Marga would rather be executed than be shamed by her father's treasonous actions.
After finally setting Marga straight about her father, Amanda and Marga escape the prison and run into the jungle with the help of two undercover guards. Their escape is short-lived when one of the guards Totoy Torres, here billed as "Joe Towers" in the opening credits [but using his real name in the closing credits! Warden Chen rapes Marga on the beach and hangs Amanda by her hair before eventually throwing them both back in their cells.
The remainder of the film finds Amanda and Lucy trying to break Marga out of prison before she is executed for crimes against her country. Along the way, all three will suffer more degradation, including rape both lesbian and straight , forced drug addiction and constant catfights with Paula and her gang of lesbos.
Will all three live to see freedom? When King Lim dies of a sudden heart attack, everything changes and most of it is not good, both for Marga and Lucy. Don't count on it. This is a fairly by-the-numbers WIP flick which contains all the usual standbys. This is probably the biggest film role Vic Diaz had in the 90's and he looks like he is having one helluva time here, whether it is stripping and raping women in his office that contains one of the biggest bird cages I have ever seen filled with hundreds of birds , shooting traitors and faithful guards with equal abandon or drugging women to get them "in the mood".
The action scenes don't really come until the final third, but the gunfights and explosions are well-handled because Santiago was an old hand at this kind of stuff.
Nothing spectacular, but entertaining nonetheless. They actually succeed because they aim for the gutter, throwing-in graphic, gory violence with hardcore sex and nudity, making this one of D'Amato's better sleaze epics.
After a brief history of Caligula which translates to "Little Boots" from an unseen narrator, we get right to the film. The guards stop him and Caligula orders them to cut out Domitius' tongue, which they do in loving close-up.
Livia tries to stab Caligula, but Messala stops her, killing her in the process. Caligula orders Messala to kill Ezio, which he does. Messala tells him "religious fanatics" Christians were responsible and then we see Tulio's guards killing a group of Christians. Some Consul members, led by Markus Alfonso Gigante , are secretly holding a meeting in a bathhouse, where they discuss Ezio and Livia's deaths and don't believe they were killed by Christians.
Caligula wants a new amphitheater built in his honor and when he learns how much it is going to cost, he finds a way to finance it by holding a huge banquet, where only the richest of Romans will be invited, Caligula bilking them of all their wealth. When members of the Consul complain, Caligula fakes he is having an epileptic fit, where Markus verbally prays to the god Jupiter to take his life in place of Caligula.
Instantly, Caligula is better and he orders his guards to hold Markus while he runs him through with a sword Caligula says, "He did offer his life, didn't he? Caligula should not play games with the Gods, because it will eventually bite him in the ass. We then see that Domitius is still alive and Caligula takes pleasure in taunting him, even having a palace slut give him a handjob. Yes, Caligula is human scum, who gets off on other people's misery.
We then witness one of Caligula's men picking out the women who will attend the banquet. He picks only the beautiful women to pleasure the men He sticks his finger in one woman's vagina and then smells it! And he means it! The virgin Miriam pops her cherry with a dildo so Caligula will think she is experienced. We then see all the chosen women swimming naked in a pool, while one of Caligula's men swims underwater, shoving dildoes into the surprised women's vaginas!
D'Amato, who was also the cinematographer, shows the women bleeding between their legs, turning the water around them red. The women are then shown by a gay man! We are then at the banquet, where Caligula holds court over his wealthy Romans. There is an orgy including a dwarf in the sex play and the old hag giving a man a handjob!
One wealthy Roman gets his hands on Miriam, so Ulmar punches him out he's secretly in love with her and brings her to Caligula. They watch the orgy Including scenes of homosexuality and lesbianism. It wouldn't be a Roman orgy without them! The orgy continues through the night We even see the dwarf getting a blowjob. Let's just say the horse doesn't have anything to worry about! Caligula falls hard for Miriam, but Miriam also falls hard for Caligula, putting a chink in the armor of Marcellus Agrippa's plans.
Will Miriam kill the man she now loves and forgive him for raping and killing Livia? Will a jealous Ulmar get over his love for Miriam? Will Caligula change his dastardly ways? If you answered "no" to these three questions, you would be right.
Let's say that the beach will run red with blood, but whose blood will it be? And will the archer hit his mark? While there are explicit scenes of pornographic sex here including shots of ejaculation , don't expect Laura Gemser to participate in them, because you will be disappointed. Gemser's sex scenes never rise above softcore, just like in her more than a dozen Emanuelle films , many of them directed by Joe D'Amato. This film also contains graphic scenes of violence, including the aforementioned tongue cutting and Gabriele Tinti's death, where Caligula has his men shove an iron spear up his ass until it exits out of his left nipple!
Also helping is the set decoration. The film doesn't look like a typical porn film, as the sets are opulent and the locations authentic-looking The beach scenes were filmed in Anzio, Italy and the rest of the film was shot at a studio in Rome. If it's a sleaze-filled film you want, bursting with hardcore sex and gratuitous, gory violence, look no further than this film, because your prayers to the gods Jupiter and Eros have been answered.
The screenplay hits all the right notes, making this a sleazehound's dream come true. The sections missing from the English dubbed versions are in Italian with non-removable English subtitles. The print looks good when enlarged to fit a HDTV screen, but some of the subtitles are cut off at the bottom of the screen the non-removable subtitles are placed below the image. Still, you won't find a better disc of this film in the U. Not Rated for all the obvious reasons. LaFleuer" , try to entrapt the Baron using a male officer in drag, but the Baron grabs the officer's nuts and drives away.
Baron plays a game of nine ball against competing pimp Dusty who talks in rhyme for ownership of new girl Heather Feng Lan Linn. When Dusty scratches on the last ball he calls the cue ball "a honky piece of shit" , Baron takes Heather to a bus stop, buys her a ticket home and tells her to "Find some Indian or Spic and have lots of babies". Baron may be a pimp, but he's a pimp with a conscience. He keeps his pimping a secret from his wife Clarice Marilyn Joi, using the name "Tracy King" in the suburban neighborhood they live in with their two young kids.
To them, he is known as "Ron Lewis", a loving husband and father whom they all think is an IBM salesman! Baron starts running into serious problems when Mob kingpin Vince Di Nunzio sends his goons to Baron's whorehouse, where one goon cuts off the right breast of one of his whores. All Baron's whore's go into hiding or go to work for Dusty, temporarily putting him out of business. Baron goes on the warpath and goes after all the people who are harming his business.
He goes to Dusty's place and shoves the hand of the goon who cut his whore's tit off into a garbage disposal. Before he is able to get to Dusty, the two vice cops show up, but Baron gets away Flower says, "Black bastard's got a horseshoe up his ass! Baron gets all his enemies to congregate at a restaurant, where he bursts in, gun blazing, killing everyone an effective slo-mo scene. He leads the two vice cops on a car chase which ends up with the cops going over a cliff.
Baron takes his money and becomes "Ron Lewis" for the rest of his life. We are not even aware of Baron's alter ego until a third of the way through the film and it does come as a surprise to the viewer. Let's go, I'm hungry! The fact that Baron is the only character who is portrayed as a semi-decent human being and everyone else is a violent bigot, spewing vitriolic, racist dialogue and killing everyone in sight.
The scene near the finale, where the two vice cops are teetering over a cliff in their car Flower screams, "I swallowed my gum! I actually enjoyed this film and it's always nice to see the late George 'Buck' Flower get a meaty role he's both comical and brutal, as witnessed by his rape of Heather.
Matt Cimber real name: They drive the bus to an isolated house in the mountains, where the cheerleaders discover that their female chaperone, Frankie Courtney Sands , is in on the kidnapping. George Henderson Anthony Lewis , the violence-prone black member of the gang, tells the girls that they are now prisoners of the "National American Army Of Freedom", a ficticious revolutionary group used to ruse the police.
The NAAF demand two million dollars for the safe return of the girls and a Governor's assistant announces at a press conference, attended by the girls' worried parents, that the Governor will not pay the ransom, but they have set up a program where the parents can apply for low-interest loans to pay their share of the ransom, providing they pass a credit check!
As you can imagine, this plan doesn't go over too well. Wayne keeps the police at bay by phoning in his demands and instructions for the ransom drop-off through popular DJ Joyful Jerome's Lee Curtis radio program. Not surprisingly since this is a 70's cheerleader flick , the girls begin to like it until Big John tries to rape Lisa Ann Wharton.
Frankie saves Lisa, but she then puts the moves on her in the bathroom when Frankie cleans her up. Wouldn't you know it? Wayne and Debbie hit it off.
One of the girls, Afton Janet "Janus" Blythe , unsuccessfully tries to escape she holds George off with a chainsaw for a few moments. All of the girls put their differences aside and formulate a plan of escape. Florence joined the Civil Service and worked as a guard in There she met her husband Ed. They were married on May 14, There they had 2 sons, Bill and Steve.
In they moved to Cottonwood where they managed a ranch until they moved to Fall River Mills in Again, they worked side by side tirelessly building the business until Ed retired in Florence continued working until retirement in After retirement, they traveled and enjoyed their 80 acre ranch on Lewis Rd. Florence came to live at Mayers Memorial Hospital in She enjoyed the company and activities there.
She had several good roommates, her favorite was 98 year old, Helen Ferry. They shared many happy days together. Florence was grateful for the loving care she received from the nursing staff at Mayers. Florence is preceded in death by her loving husband Ed, four sisters, and one brother. She also leaves 10 step-great grandchildren and several nieces and nephews. Florence passed away Jan. February 2, William E. Armstrong died January 29, in Redding. He loved hunting, fishing, woodworking, dancing and spending time with his family.
He was preceeded in death by son Donald, father E. The family requests that memorial contributions be made in his name to VFW Post - scholarship fund. Kerr Morthuary of Alturas is handling the arrangements. Don Canright and Rick Maher will officiate. Internment will be at Pine Grove Cemetery.
Tamplen died of natural causes at his home February 1, He was a mechanic in the Agriculture Industry and played Santa in the Intermountain Area for 20 years. Peters; daughters Quinsea J. After graduating from high school he served in the U. His family notes that Dick loved the business of helping people and there are few greater needs for people than water. It was hard to tell where his pump business stopped and personal time began.
For it was not unusual for Dick to leave the house on service calls, on weekends and holidays, rain or shine. He was always there when the water stopped. He will be greatly missed by his family and everyone he knew, especially those he helped who were out of water.
He is survived by Leona, his wife of 68 years, his daughters, Phyllis Berryman of Chico, Linda Parker of Burney, son-in-laws Gregg Berryman and Rodger Parker; four grandchildren, four great-grandchildren and five great-great-grandchildren, three sisters-in-laws, Dorothy Johnson, Alice Bruns and Helen Kruger.
He was preceded in death by granddaughter, Diane Smith, brother Francis, and sister, Irene. The family requests that memorial contributions be made in his name to Lady of the Valley, Highway , Fall River Mills or a charity of your choice.
Arrangements were handled by Allen and Dahl of Palo Cedro. The Reverend Jeff Bidwell will officiate. He was born January 1, in Chico and moved to the area in Shasta; stepdaughters, Paula May of Spokane and Lori Burns of McAllen, Texas; 17 grandchildren, eight great-grandchildren and one great-great--grandson. The family requests that memorial contributions be made in his name to the Intermountain Hospice, P.
Box , Fall River Mills, Lomita will be missed for her beautiful smile and cheerful nature, always remembered for her beautiful way of treating others. Services will be held Thursday, January 21, as a memorial. Pastor Henry Winkleman will officiate at 10 a. Bethel died January 11, at home. Lyn was born December 31, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Lyn was an accomplished and celebrated professional equestrian for over 45 years and a founding member of the California Dressage Society.
Lyn competed successfully in many types of equestrian events, and trained horses and riders to do the same. Lyn was active for many years in the Fort Crook Historical Society. Lyn will be missed far and wide by friends, colleagues, neighbors, students, horses, dogs, fellow competitors, and barn buddies of all shapes and sizes. After a private burial at the Pine Grove Cemetery in McArthur, a memorial celebration of her life will be held Saturday, January 16 from 2 to 4 p.
Pot Luck items are appreciated. Memorial contributions may be made to any of the following organizations: They were a musical family and he played the violin, giving concerts of his own compositions beginning at He lived there until he was 16 when he came to the U.
The family will celebrate their 67th wedding anniversary on Jan. After Japan surrendered, he went to Hiroshima to translate for the doctors who were working with patients near the atomic bomb sites. Freda and Tavie moved to Berkeley after the war where he finished school.
His first job as a music teacher was with the Fall River School District and he taught there until he retired in They have three children: He has three granddaughters: Tavie leaves his sister, Esther in St.
He was preceded in death by sister Margrethe and brother Erik. Our appreciation for the respect, love and kindness given to him is unlimited as is our gratitude to our many friends who have been so supportive during these last years. Condolences may be sent to BrusieFH.
A celebration of his life will be held Feb. Moore, 89, of Cassel will be held at 11 a. Burial will be at the Burney Cemetery on Bailey Street. Moore died at his home of natural causes January 7, The family requests that memorial contributions be made to Intermountain Hospice, P. Cooper, 84, of Pittville. She was born June 9, in Watsonville, CA and moved to the area from there in A celebration of life will be held at 4 p. Beck died December 25, from pancreatic cancer. She was a resident of Bieber until when she moved to Susanville and was, among several other occupations, postmaster at Adin.
She is survived by her sons, Andy and Jon; brother Steve Jacobs and four grandsons. The family requests that in lieu of flowers, donations be made to a charity of your choice. Opdyke died December 29, He was a rancher. Packham died of natural causes December 24, He was born in Olney Springs, Colorado on March 2, Box , Clarksburg, MD James Henry Grandpa Snelling Dec. He went to be with the Lord Christmas night after battling pneumonia for five continuous days.
He also leaves behind many dear friends and nieces and nephews. Jim joined the U. He moved to Burney, California to follow the love of his life Maxine Turner in and they were married in October of Jim worked in the timber industry as a timber faller and sawmill worker in the early years in Burney and many years later moved to Redding, California where he was employed at Kimberly Clark Paper and Simpson Paper for the last twenty years as a supervisor until he retired.
He spent the last twenty-five years of his life retired in Burney where he lived with Larry, Peggy, Jimmy and Robby. The greatest joy for him was to watch his grandsons play sports and later become coaches. He followed them right up until the very end by going to Butte College and McQueen football games to watch them both coach. He also enjoyed the outdoors and spent many days hunting and fishing with his buddies Chuck Turner, Neland Doughty and Mory Visser.
Tom Watson the only doctor he would listen to and his good friend Roger Borkey who often took Jim to lunch and dinner. There will never be another like him. A reception will follow military graveside services. He was a heavy equipment operator and truck driver for Packway Materials, U. He is survived by sisters: Laura died November 21, at home of natural causes.
Burial followed at the Burney Cemetery. Wallace died of natural causes in Fall River Mills November 5, Jan Bonjour Services will be held at 1 p. The Reverend Lee Shepard will officiate. Bonjour was a lifetime resident of the Intermountain Area except for a short period when she lived in Paso Robles.
She was born July 10, in Inglewood, California. She and her business partner, Sally Jacobsen, founded The Mountain Echo, a career she loved and in which she excelled until her forced retirement in the early s due to illness. She was preceded in death by her mother and stepfather, Cleo and Carl Brush and her father, Orville Hanie.
Kira gracefully fought a courageous battle with her illness and was an inspiration to those who knew her. She was a devoted and loving mother, grandmother, sister, and aunt who will be greatly missed.
A memorial service will be held on Saturday, November 20 at 1: Gaylord was a former resident of Bieber and McArthur. He was a former owner of McArthur Mobile Home Park, had his own band in Bieber, was a lumber truck driver and owned a back hoe service. In Memory of Michael Gilbert Sullivan. A celebration of life will be scheduled this coming spring in Corvallis, Washington for Michael Gilbert Sullivan, 47, of Corvallis. Michael was born November 17, in Chico, California and died after a brief illness October 10, in Corvallis.
He grew up in Burney and graduated from Burney High School in He was a published writer and also the author of a self published book about his childhood memories. At the time of his death he was working on a biography of world-traveler William Seabrook. Mike was a great lover of dogs, especially rescue dogs and other animals. Burial followed at the Fall River Cemetery.
He was a U. Estes is survived by his wife Charlotte of Burney: Burial followed at the Willits Cemetery. Winchester died of natural causes September 12, at Mayers Memorial Hospital. He was a fork lift operator for a lumber mill. Her retirement was filled with books, gardening, good friends and the love of family.
She was preceded in death by her father Ralph N. Woods and her first husband, Paul Merrill. She has the distinction of being the first female Civil Engineer to be licensed in the state of Nevada! Peggy was an expert in water hydrology and flood control. She worked in floodplain management in Arizona in the 's before starting her own firm in Reno; she also spent time throughout her career consulting for FEMA and acting as an expert witness in court proceedings.
In , she was a contributor to a book on alluvial fan flooding commissioned by a geological studies group. Bowker was the president, owner and principal engineer of Nimbus Engineers of Reno and F.
Following "official" retirement, Peggy lent her expertise to several local engineering firms and had currently been serving as a Community Services District Director in Fall River Mills. Peggy mentored many young engineers in her career and touched the lives of so many more.
The family invites friends to gather in celebration of Peggy's life on Saturday, September 25, , at 2 p. Bring a favorite memory or photo to share. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation in Peggy's memory. She was a homemaker.
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