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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. This is the fourteenth edition of the publication Lnil ' I in The major purpose of this publication is to provide statistical information to the public, professional educatoi the General Assembly. This profile provides information or. This publication would not be possible without the full su] and dedicated efforts of public school administrators, prii and teachers.

Their efforts in making this information ava: Following are descriptions and tabli information on the educational system and students of the State of Carolina.

Pupil Accounting Pupil accounting data are among the most useful and valuable sources of information available to educators and administrators on both state and local levels and to the public in general.

The basic pupil accounting form used in North Carolina is the Principal's Monthly Report; there are nine reporting periods of twenty school days each. Tables summarize these data by grade beginning with the school year and extending to The definitions of pupil accounting terms used in this publication are: The term enrollment represents the number of pupils registered in the state's public schools.

Students transferring to the North Carolina public school system from another state and non-public school students entering the public schools are added to enrollment; however, it is not reduced by transfers, withdrawals, deaths, or midyear graduations. The end of the year enrollment thus shows a higher count than the number of students in actual membership. The total number of school days within a given term or school year that a student's name is on the current roll of a class, regardless of his being present or absent, is the "number of days in membership" for that student.

The sum of the "number of days in membership" for all students divided by the number of school days in the term yields ADM. The final average daily membership is the aggregate of the total days in membership for all students over the school year divided by the number of days school was in session.

Attendance is the presence of a student on days when school is in session. A student is counted as present only when he is actually at school, present at another activity sponsored by the school as part of the school's program, or personally super- vised by a member of the staff. The total number of days of atten- dance for all students divided by the total number of school days in a given period gives the average daily attendance ADA.

Membership Last Day refers to the number of students remaining in membership as of the last day of school for the academic year. Students who are in membership on the last day are either advanced to the next grade promoted for the coming school year or retained in the same grade non-promotions for the succeeding school year. The non-promotion rates for. In , the state mandated summer school programs in all school systi Most students that were not promoted at the end of the regular school si attended summer school.

A number of them were promoted to thi sucessfully completing the summer session. Since promotion policies vary among administrative units, care should be exercised in making comparisons of non-promotion rates, particularly at the secondary level.

Many secondary schools require the completion of a fixed number of Carnegie units or of a required curriculum to advance to the next grade level. In many cases, non-promotion of a grade in high school may indicate the failure of a single course rather than the entire or o- course load for that grade level.

Exceptional pupil memberships are incl in the total non-promotion rate. With this method, residential births and grade membership are used to calculate the grade survival ratios. In an effort to obtain stable ratios, a period of five years of historical data is used. The projected information has proven valuable to all phases of school planning both at the state and local levels.

Table 8 summarizes ADM projections by grade level for the state while Table 9 gives the projected final ADM for each school administrative unit. Exceptional Pupils Information on the numbers of exceptional students identified and served by primary handicapping classification as of December 1 is a part of the certi- fied headcount submitted to the Division of Student Information Management each year.

During non-survey years, the same data is collected by the Department of Public Education. These figures should not be confused with average daily membership. Table 11 is a summary of the pupils in membership for by race and sex for each administrative unit and also gives state totals. Oi-1 z i-i du. UJ UJ k Qi-: Intentions of the graduates are reported by the following categories: Table 13 is the state summary of graduates' intentions.

Table 14 presents a five-year history of this information. High school graduates' intentions for each administrative unit can be found in Part II of this publication. Projections of High School Graduates A ten-year projection of the number of high school graduates of local public school systems is presented in Table The projections are updated annually in the fall and are used by planners of post- secondary institutions.

The future number of high school graduates in each school administrative unit is determined by the prevailing birth counts, immigration and emigration rates into and out of the region, promotions, and school dropout patterns. For the state as a whole, the total number of high school graduates will slightly increase for the next two years due to the relatively large live birth count from to The downward trend will resume again from to O O I XrHza: Students drop out of school for many reasons.

Some of the well documented ones are: The figures are estimated from information supplied to the Department of Public Education by local school systems throughout the state. Because a significant number of students drop out during the summer months when school is not in session, the annual dropout rate must be estimated. Precise dropout statistics require an individual follow-up of students leaving school prior to graduation to determine their educational status.

While some high schools conduct such follow-up studies, the vast majority do not. The extended day dropout rate has been calculated separately from the regular school program for the following reasons: No attempt has been made, therefore, to estimate the number of students who drop out over the summer months from extended day programs.

To calculate the extended day program dropout rate, the actual number of reported dropouts is divided by the actual headcount of students in the program. Users of the dropout data should be cautioned about two points. First, in comparing North Carolina's estimated annual high school dropout rate with those of other states remember that wide variations exist among the states in the definition of dropouts and the methods of calculating the rates.

Any comparison to the other states should be made only with a full and complete understanding of the statistical methods used to arrive at the published rates. Second, our estimated rates have an error without a known magnitude. All empirical evidence, when available, showed a very small error rate.

Therefore, in using historical trends, very small changes in the year to year figures should be interpreted with great care since they may be the result of estimation errors.

However, a persistent trend can be interpreted as evidence of real change. Following is a detailed description of the information sources and data gathered from them. Public School Personnel Summary Table 17 is a summary of all full-time personnel employed as of October 1, , at the school and central office level as reported on the Public School Full -Time Personnel Report. This report collects data on full-time personnel by activity assignment, sex, race, and source of funds.

Definitions of activity assignment classifications are given on Page II Experience Status of Instructional Personnel The experience status of instructional personnel is collected annually on the Professional Personnel Activity Report; this report is completed by all school-level professional personnel and any central office personnel who have instructional duties.

The information presented in Table 18 by administrative unit and state totals is a summary of the experience status of all full- and part-time principals, assistant principals, guidance counselors, librarians, and classroom teachers. Highest Degree Held by Professional Personnel The information presented in Table 19 represents the educational level of all certificated professional personnel employed this year full- or part-time at school and central office levels.

Please note that it is the highest degree held that is reported here, not necessarily the degree upon which salary is based. The information in this table comes from teacher certification files. C0 UJ HI u. The pi rcenf ranks that have been computed are based upon full- tin eni emp 1 oyment. The percent rai I teai hers with graduate degrees include all who hold a bachelor's.

The percent and rankings of classroom teachers experience include all who are teaching this year for the first time. The third category of information is the percent and ranking of pi sional staff paid entirely from local funds.

This information is based upon the full-time-equivalents of all professional personnel employed at the central office or school level and who are paid entirely from local funds. In addition to various revenue and expenditure da are two tables at the end of the section to put these data Ln t Lve.

Since the fiscal years and the school years do not coincide, thi this section are one or more years behind the data found Ln other sect ions of this publication. Data obtained from external sources, such as the di e by counties, may lag two years behind.

Expenditures of some institutions, even though they are public 1 are excluded from the data presented in this section. Specifically, the expenditures of the Governor Morehead School, the North Carolina schools for the deaf, the Fort Bragg and Camp Lejeune military base schools, and Cherokee- Indian Reservation schools are not included in the totals. The total expenditures for a school year are grouped into two major categories: The amount of capital expense expenditures fluctuate considerably from year to year.

The current expense expenditures on the other hand, being closely tied to the number of students, are more stable. All derived statis- tics such as per pupil expenditures, are computed for current expense expendi- tures only. This is especially true for statistics that can meaningfully be compared over several years. One derived statistic, "per pupil expenditure," is of special interest since it is quoted and compared most often.

In the tables of this section it is computed only for current expense expenditures by using the final avi. Other publications, especially those from the national sources, use the average daily attendance ADA in computing this statistic. Since average daily membership is greater than the average daily attendance, the latter method yields a higher figure for the "per pupil expenditures.

The first two, "State" and "Federal" are the amounts spent for education from the budgets of state and federal governments respectively. The "local" expenditures, on the other hand, are not synonymous with the amounts expended by the local county governments. All expenditures not funded by the state or the federal governments are regarded as "local" expenditures.

As such, they include all funds supplied from the local governments and other local sources. There are two tables in this section that list the per pupil expenditures for each school system.

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Their next release - Stainless Steel will be out in July, Glentop Publishing produced a new range of books, one on the Joyce and an Advanced Programmers Guide which documents Lots of things about the which Amstrad would rather you didn't know. Mirrorsoft were a major attraction, demonstrating an early version of Fleet Street Editor.

The highlight was a visit from Biggies himself, seen above reading about the Mirrorsoft game. He had just flown in, by helicopter, from Manchester where he had been appearing on the Saturday Picture Show, The show may not have had very many surprises, but proved to be a worthwhile day out for any Amstrad owner.

Now they have burst back into the limelight by announcing a new product. The game follows a dungeon adventure theme where, according to the direction in which you move the joystick, different sections of animation are displayed. In the arcades Dragon's Lair was so popular that players queued into the streets. We don't know how Software Projects intend to produce the same effect without a laser disc, but we are quite sure they will do justice to Dirk the Daring as he battles to save the princess.

The initial production run of 5, units is available immedi- ately. The machine will be so cheap that it will be given away free with some software. Called "This is not the PCW" the machine comes with two discs and a sheet of paper. More precisely the machine IS a piece of paper -a cardboard cut-out. By cutting along the lines, glueing and folding in best cereal packet style you can build a model Joyce. Amstrad customer services have already designed the cut-out CPSS Now that, they have discovered Micronet, Micronet has discovered Amstrad users and is providing a database for them, to rival the increas- ingly popular Amsnet run by Yiewfax, another Preatel information provider.

The Amstrad Microbase will have news, a technical hotline and some free telesoftware. Boxing clever The world has been waiting for a box to take 3m discs. Made by Protomec of Spain it has a clever little lever which makes it easy to get the discs out.

You can get them from SBS data services of Brighton Phone or post the coupon for a Service Contract Form — before it's too late!

Or send your remrttanor together with Che machines serial numbers and we will return the Agreement with your receipt by return.

Sage Retrieve , Spreadsheets SuperCalcll r. Maintenance contract for Map ntenance contract f or B5 1 2. Custom cables made to order. Let our experts match your computer to the fir ncer: Visa No 'Phone Immediate despatch on receipt of order or cheque clearance. Or yog can Telex your order on: S ubiect to c ha npe with out notice due to cu rre mcv f I uc tuatio ns etc E fi H. IT1 AdG Simple is the answer for your business Professional business software on a single drive Amstrad, but better with 2 drives.

Over 1 Users on many other computers. Very simple to operate weekly accounts. Ideal for all Retailers and other cash businesses. VAT on Sale or Return. Invoicing and Customers Accounts made simple available soon, YES — Clip the Coupon now or telephone and we will rush you a copy "Sale or Return" on receipt of your cheque.

If not suitable we will refund your money in full within 28 days. Micro Simplex, B Charlotte St. Please bear in mind that the views expressed herein are not necessarily those of Amstrad or Amsoft. Be assured that all your views are given thorough consideration. This letters section is the Amstrad Computer I 'ser's own forum. Screen stealing I have read ACU since its introduction arid have found much interest in the articles and listings, many of which I Have typed and run successfully.

As I don't own a printer could you please tell me if I can use the events and screen dumps program in the March ei issue to save a picture to cassette?

ACU; Yes, you can adapt the events part of the program to save a screen but the registers which control the colours are write -only so you will not be able to save those. I bought a Quickshot H about a year ago and found the same problem but now I have a simple solution. All you have to do is remove the bottom of your Quickshot and remove the red wire from the side of the circuit board, then tape over or cut off the end of the wire, Crawford Alves, Bearsden, Glasgow, ACU: Thanks for the tip, What you didn't say was that this modification only stops the auto-fire from crashing the computer - it doesn 't get the auto-fire to work.

She had a problem which was that the foreign characters of French. Spanish, and German wouldn't come out on her DMPl printer t only on the screen. But your help to the teacher was not very nice - you recommended her to buy a Joyce, and that was not a very friendly move. There is a solution - the program Tasprint from Tasman Software is a very impressive program for the Amstrad. It is per cent compatible with TaswordV Am sword and some Bask programs.

It can make a lot of foreign characters in five very handsome styles, on a lot of printers, including the DMPl. Those were the bad things , , , and now the good ones.

ACU is the best computer magazine I have ever seen t keep it going like that, and I will read it to my dying day. It is professional funny and very interesting. Questions, questions, questions First things first - could you tell me if there is any hook on the market which deals entirelv with music on the Amstrad? And also what is the best listings book? Keep up the Hairy Hacker's Haunt, as it's very good. Fewer adverts, there are too many, In the main it is the adverts which pay for the magazine.

How about a software company top 20 chart? If there is the demand we will try. Your software reviews arc excellent, keep them up, especially your colour screen shots.

The administration for this would be very difficult - besides it lopks a little fishy if we review things and then try to sell them to you, 7, Keep printing listings with screen shots if possible, Point taken J 8, Could you maybe lower the price of your listings tape?

With the small production rum we have on the tape and the administration and postage costs in- volved, it really is as cheap as is practical, Andrew DufT T Ross-shire, Scotland, Welsh accent Following on from Susanne Lees' letter - and your reply - why won't my PC WG Locoscript permit me to produce gram- matical Welsh?

With the current emphasis here on bilingualism my driving licence and all official forms are supplied in both English and Welsh - if they aren't, they go on the fire can't the half-million of us who understand the language find a way around this problem? It is crucial to be able to produce the letter w and y with a circumflex, or a "to bach".

For esample 1 1 can type the name of the town Cwmbran correctly, but. It may not seem important to you, but it does to us - the word for a choir is cor, but if you leave off the circumflex it translates as dwarf. I hope we got all the accents and things right printing your letter.

The number of Welsh users does not justify the cost of producing a special manual and software- Novel use for The Rev. Allan Webster's one line word processor reminds me of a similar program I wrote two years ago, t used it on my - one of the very first hatch - while 1 waited for the Amsword word processor to appear. It is normal for us to charge for advertisements - still we'll let you. Since then I have tried in vain to obtain spare CF2 discs locally.

Yesterday lunchtime 1 picked up the phone and called Squirrel's Byte Leicester, and the discs arrived this morning 9am. Richard Devlin, Derry h N. ACUi We had a great article on multicoloured characters in the Decem- ber issue, but it is a shade ouch! See the back issues coupon on Page Software con Referring to my letter published in April's edition of A CU I cannot accept or understand your remarks that software is expensive to produce t unless there is a figure relative to the risk.

Writing this letter is an expensive exercise. Because if companies like Dixons can give it away free, then it is because the suckers - of which I will not be one - are subsidising the promotion of a computer which they do not support without realising it. These are the real pirates in the computer world, not me. All 1 want to do is pay a fair price and not feel a ripe plum ready for the taking.

A game takes between three months and two years to write, and will sell in the thousands. Writing a program like Wordstar is a risk - you have to guess how many copies you are likely to sell and average the cost of development out over the sales. With Wordstar MicroPro guessed wrongly and overpriced it - although at the time the competition also sold at similar high prices.

Similar arguments could be put forward on the games scene - sometimes volume will more than compensate for low margins. If there is the demand then the product should be cheap, if not you will have to pay more. Disc dearth Why do most software companies treat CPC and owners like they have the plague?

What 1 mean is because I have a disc drive 1 feel like an outcast. Let me give you a example, 1 purchased both a copy of Arnhem and Desert Rats from CCS on tape as this is the only format available. Being a basic machine code programmer I worked out that both programs can be converted to disc properly if the AMSDOS workspace is moved.

Now this is beyond me so I wrote to CCS requesting if they could transfer both programs - for a fee - or provide technical information.

They told me that Desert Rats was released before the disc drive CPCs - which is not true - and that they had finished with Desert Rats and were moving on to other programs, This is the standard reply I seem to receive from software houses on this matter. This type of treatment of users should be stopped and maybe your magazine could lead the way towards this.

The standard reason for not providing certain software on disc is the lack of supply of his format, which is a lot of rubbish because they can provide a version on the tape which can be transferred to disc.

The software house's reply would be that it makes it easy to copy its programs. The fact of the matter is that I have yet to come across s program that I cannot backup on to the same format - tape or disc. For example, Strike Force Harrier and The Music System which have been designed so that they cannot be copied are dead easy.

ACUi Just because you are clever enough to copy most of ihe discs around is no reason for software houses to give everyone a leg- up in pirating their products, I doubt that you can copy all the discs about - have you tried Tomahawk or Working Backwards?

Most new titles ore available on disc either direct or through the A mbyte scheme, The Mirage Imager will transfer most things from tape to disc if you really want a particular program which is only available on tape. A program which backs itself up on to disc is a licence to print money - playground piracy is a huge problem and everything that software houses can do to eliminate it should be applauded. Rabbit, rabbit I have spent many busy hours typing Splatch in from your November and December issues and although I am a professional programmer I am not very good at playing computer games.

I find Splatch quite addictive although I have only recently reached screen E. When I have eaten all the carrots the program is still expecting me to find one more. You need to drop an acorn on to a squirrel - this will turn into nine more carrots. I shall go back to it time and time again " Mtt. The graphics we, as usual, superb and evocative The Stick excels in the sports games.

Nn Amslrad dive uwrter should be without it. CJJ All prices aubiid In change rtichau! It's purpose built to provide plenty of storage space and because it's produced alongside our range of executive computer desking it offers a level of quality you'll appreciate.

Shelving accommodates your monitor, printer computer, disc drive or cassette recorder and software, and the teak-finished unit is fitted with castors to make it fully mobile. The Organiser's assembled dimensions are: Getting organised couldn't be easier. Please rush me the following: Name Address Telephone Opus. Bearing in mind the range of features included and their ease of use, this package is rightly acclaimed as the No.

Formatting — Word wrap, right justify, variable left and right margins. Ruler lines — Unfimited number of ruler lines to define margins and labs Decimal tabs. Merged files of varying lengths ere automatically reformatted. File merge - insert file while printing. Auto configuration - you. Cut and paste - any block of text can be moved to any position - allows multiple column layout.

Calculator - a simple on screen calculator for those invoice totals etc. Later in the same group gave us The Worm in Paradise, a science fiction adventure that had a quite remarkable vocabulary of more than a thousand words and which recognised input commands such as Up, Examine all but the helmet and go East. All three additionally feature multitasking which allows you to type in commands while the pictures are being drawn.

This may not sound very important but if you are repeating a scries of moves it saves time and helps maintain a feeling of continuity. Each Amstrad cassette has three versions of the game - text and graphics, extended text and graphics or extended text but no graphics. Only the first and last of these options are available to machines with 64k of memory. CPCs and s with additional memory may choose any version.

RAM SAVE enables the player to rapidly save and subsequently restore the game position to or from a section of the computer's memory. This is a particularly useful feature as its regular use can ensure a known base to return to if you get lost or meet something you would rather not. It simply undoes your last command and returns you to your last location - very useful if you are attacked by a werewolf or punctured by an exploding chest!

Regular 64k Amstrad owners will have to use the tape save and restore commands as usual. This is the first adventure game to bo protected against piracy by using the Lenslok system.

A plastic prismatic lens is supplied with each game that converts a load of rubbish on the screen into a readable two letter code. The code is entered, and if correct, the program continues. If not then you have to try again until you get it right. Into adventures with BUI Brock guardian of the source of magical power - the red moon crystal of Baskalos.

As time passed he has become more aware of his own mortality and has perverted the crystal's power to his own ends. If he continues, there will be no magic left in the world. You must stop him. There are plenty of places to explore and interesting things to find and use. None of these are treasures in the normal sense but they will help you learn how to use the 18 spells necessary to reach and destroy Myglar.

Exits are upwards to a sloping: D Vou're on a vine. Exits are upwards to the vine top and downwards to a vine. Level Nine's best yet performing that particular magic. No score is given, but type in SCORE and you will get a report on your present sanity and apparent age. Get too old and you are done for I Your stamina is also important, as there are several unpleasant creatures you may meet who will not let you past without a fight.

A weapon and some form of armour are useful finds before you get ton involved. Death in this place, so full of the powers of magic, will release an avenging ghost, so it is wise not to be too bloodthirsty unless absolutely necessary. It is also possible to control some of these creatures, but that spell may not be so easy to find. This adventure is surely Level Nine's best yet. Graphics are drawn quickly and the text is up to the usual high standard. Finding spells and making them work is a clever variation on treasure seeking and the usual game puzzles.

There are plenty of clues - if you know where to look - and Level Nine's own brand of humour is never far away. A highly recommended game for expert or beginner - colourful, inventive and full of interest.

One can only hope that Level Nine can sustain such quality in the future. No high flyer Melbourne House has quite a reputation for adventures, starting with The Hobbit which broke so much new ground that the adventure game Field has never been quite the same since. Its latest release is Redhawk, a graphical adventure with a difference. The graphics are in the form of a comic strip, which is quite relevant as the game is all about a comic type superhero - Redhawk.

Text entry directs Kevin Oliver- Redhawk 's alter ego - out from the hospital, where he finds himself at the start of the game. Around the town he searches for a job as a crime photographer and then on into whatever adventures you like to give him r He has lost his memory and you have the choice of Page 18 Redhawk: Disappointing comic strip adventure making him act as either a superhero or supervillain.

Redhawk's popularity rating is shown graphically, giving you something to aim for. This rating also affects how other characters will interact. To solve the strange goings on it seems best to aim for the hero rather the villain.

The only snag is that in Redhawk's form, his energy output is high and his reservoirs of power fairly low. So a return to being plain Kevin is very necessary after a short interval. The location descriptions arc almost non-existent as they are all included in the comic strip shown at the top of the screen.

This consists of three panels or frames that scroll across the screen from right to left as each command is action ed. You would think that this would show the present and two previous scenes but this is not the case.

Each command entered, if understood, is repeated by the Kevin in the strip and only then is that command actioned - two frames for one command. This would not be so bad if the frames were drawn quickly but they are not. It is quite painful if all you want to do is go from location A to location B but it is even worse to have to wait for the frame to be drawn to be told that Kevin looks for a way north but can't find one.

The game is played in real time and there is a digital clock ticking away the seconds as you wonder what to do next. Quite rightly the clock is stopped if Kevin does not understand what you are trying to get him to do, Unfortunatley this seems to happen all too often - his understanding of normal adventure talk is sadly lacking.

His inability to understand the command "Open door' 1 brought up the response that "open" confuses Kevin. Another departure from normal practice is the use of the word Examine. Here it literally means a body search - it is not surprising that a young lady, met early on in the game, objected quite strongly when 1 told Kevin to examine her! Normal tape save or load to cassette is used for a more permanent record.

A disappointing game and boringly slow when you consider that, you are waiting for minimal text and very mediocre graphics. The game puzzles are not bad bul the lack of any real atmosphere destroys what could have been a really innovative production.

I have had quite a few letters from readers with something in common. Now we all have problems solving adventure games and the pleasure obtained in playing them would soon be lost if they were all easy to solve.

This present spate of ''help me 5 ' letters comes, not from regular adventurers who know the ropes, accept all the challenges inherent in starting a new same and who are stuck for a vital clue, but from beginners to the field altogether. Often they are new to the Amstrad itself and several say they have become so frustrated that, the computer has been returned to its box and put a way in a drawer, A big drawer if they are packing the monitor away - Ed. Local help lines have been tried and local computer clubs contacted, even the.

The questions vary of course from game to game but two things seem to be common. First is the operating system - not the game's but the player's! Second, the question of which games I would recommend for the beginner. Those of us who have had some success in solving adventure games tend to forget what it was like the first time we were lost in a strange land with nothing but our wits to help us get out.

Although we covered this subject only a few months ago, perhaps a brief recap will help those who are planning to write. L Draw maps of where you go. Most games have their locations laid out on a grid pattern.

A series of boxes drawn on a sheet of paper with a very brief description of the location and what you find there will serve, A series of lines joining the boxes will indicate which location is to the North, East, West, South West and so on of each location. Keep a separate note of all objects you find scattered around. Most games are logical, even if that logic seems strange at times.

A list of objects may help you spot a link between one of them and a puzzle you are trying to solve, 3. Examine everything you can see - many useful objects will most Hkely be hidden in or behind something else. On the same lines, try moving statues, logs and the like. There is nothing more frustrating than having to repeat lots of moves because your character got killed by doing the wrong thing.

Drop something at each new location so that you can identify where you are when you return to that same place. Map mazes carefully on a separate sheet of paper. Now you have an operating system for yourself, leam to understand the game. If you come across: Each game has its own idiosyncrasies - learn what they are and use them to your advantage, This brings us to the second point - which adventures give the novice the best possible start? Ideally you do not want to spend too much time trying to make the computer understand what you want to do.

So look for a game that has a good vocabulary and that will accept commands in much the way you would speak them. Some games have a clearly defined plot that means you have to solve one part before you can tackle the next, Mindshadow from Act i vision is such a game. It is not that, easy, but everything you find has a purpose and the uses of most of the items found are reasonably logical.

Minds hadow also has a training program that will help explain the general rules of adventure games. These adventures are fun and have a good dose of humour, but they can be quite devious. They are good for beginners on several counts, the most significant being the excellent hint sheets available for the cost of a single stamped addressed envelope. These sheets contain many hundreds of numbered clues, some of which are total red-herrings!

They are split up into objects, places and answers. Look up an object and you will be directed to at least two further numbered answers. These are written in no special order, so it is not difficult to only read what you want to know and not something that will spoil any future game play. Having these hints to fa U back on serves two purposes. You do not become totally frustrated by being unable to solve a puzzle and more importantly, you learn how adventure game puzzles are built up.

Nest time you may not need a crib sheet. Offers of help If you have solved any adventures and are willing and able to tell others how to get past the tricky bits, please let me know. We can either publish your name address and telephone number, together with the games you have solved, or pass them on to those in desperate need. If you write for help, please send a stamped addressed envelope. She is also interested in writing adventure games using GAC and would be very interested in others doing the same - why don't you send one for me to review?

Rated highly by Ihe computer press. For further information write to: An ideal programming aid. Thissimply conn ects between the stan da rd p o rt a nd the pnn rer lead , no other con nectio ns necessary.

Win enable the user lo have full graphics possibilities, def inabl e c ha racter sets, etc. A total ol 3 9k of disc space used. This men u-driven disc can store up to discs or 2, 1 50 progrms. To use Spirit you need a dissassemblerand some knowledge ol machine code.

Included is a de mo to show you the possibilitie s ol designing and writing your own animated soil ware. The complele instruction book gives example sol how lo create and animate sprites lor your own programming. Does not apply to double cassette pack offers. But when that something special turns out to be a product in which they are already expert, then it must be something very special indeed.

The object of their enthusiasm is A MX Pagemaker -a revolutionary software program that will produce newspapers, posters, leaflets, notices and hand-outs - in fact anything where text and graphics are required, to an extraordinary professional standard.

It's a complete graphics design system and word processor rolled into one. It has real time graphics with fast continuous scrolling up and town an A4 page and uses Mode 2, the highest graphics resolution on the Amstrad CPC computers. You can type directly onto the screen, with any of t he 16 typefaces su pplied or design your own, alternatively, you can load in any ASCII fie or a word processor file, from programs such as Tasword, Amsword, Maxam, or Protext, with fulty automatic on-screen text formatting during loading.

Also included is a micro spacing facility. IP The prog ram that ; s makin g front pag e news. There are outstanding facilities far drawing, spraying and painting, using either the patterns supplied, or your own pattern designs.

A screen conversion routine is included allowing screens created in Mode I and 0 to be used within the Pagemaker. The cut and paste facilities include copying, moving, rotating, stretching and a fantastic zoom is also available, The previewer allows you to view three A4 pages at any time before work is output to a wide range of dot matrix printers indorsing: Let's leave the last word to the press.

Pagemaker" is phenomenal - it tends itself to creating anything where text and graphics are involved notices, posters, leaflets, hand-outs, newsheeis. Using any video that provides a composite signal and the digjtiser, images from a camera or TV can be converted into a graphic screen on the Arnstrad Micro. Tney can then be used with in AMX Pagemaker to illustrate magazines or newsletters.

Thedigjtiser connects into the expansion port and scans a complete picture in only 5 seconds. A special print dump routine is also included with the driver programs, This is specialty designed to produce fast, correctly proportioned pictures, with reduced 'Contouring' resulting in a very accurate reproduction of the image. Features offered by this package include: These superb packages are available from all good computer dealers or direct using the Freepost order form below.

OOp Amstrad 8 k complete with col our monitor and disc. The tutor will give full training on tne use of the above functions. The dictionary contains Q0D wards and grows as you use ii. Features include full search faci it es. I or 22 records per screen. The print lacilitv allows you to produce leaflets, labels, menus using IS different fonts. AU 01 Mail order only. It has aJ way a had a high profile the image of good marketing helping mediocre software. Its firs i program was Eureka, an adventure written bv Acid mmeda software which took the player through a myriad of different times but this was never converted for the Amstrad.

It came out just after the Arnold, offering a huge cash prize to the first player to finish. Just as the deadline was looming a schoolboy told Do mark that he had finished the game and left last year's PCW show with a cheque and a large grin. Even for the people who didn't win, Eureka was good value for money.

While the music hy Duran Duran was doing very well in the singles chart, the game did less spec- tacularly in the software stakes. View To A Kill was rushed and it showed. This was not helped by lots of magazines being offered an exclusive. Domark has never worried about what prudes might think, Friday 13th was a very successful horror film. It was certainly scary, I trembled through part two H walked not of part one, and avoided part three - in that order - but then I'm just a coward.

Still a lot of people like being scared silly and were very popular. The game of the same name caused the kind of trouble on which Domark seems to thrive. There were calls for it to be withdrawn, the advertisment had to be changed and Dom ark claimed thin h was all in the best possible taste. Unfor- tunately the game was not as scary as watching an undead attack two teenagers in a VW Beetle.

It was too easy by far. All you had to do was grah the spear and throw it enough times. Domark seems to look for controversy. One of its newest releases, Splitting Image, has annoyed the people at Central Television so much that the name has had to be changed to Split Personalities, but fortunately the game- ;i bjK-k puzzle program - is good enough to weather the storm.

Gladiator, their newest release s has ciime of the usual Domark traits. The Amstrad conversion has ht? The latest pugilist to enter the arena is Gladiator from Domark. Simon Rockman looks at the company and the program. Mike is a programmer working on big IBM main frames but was attracted to the micro world by the graphics.

He complains that the mainframe world is all accounting and no fun hut that games programming is much much more time consuming. The conversion from Spec- trum to Amstrad had taken over three months. It was originally intended to be a Mode 1 game but the lure of extra colours and This xhoivs the gladiator graphics A scare will be added. This meant that the all-important spritt. When I saw Gladiator the code was nearly finished but the graphics were still being finished by an artist the other side of London.

The key combinations got very com- plicated with the Spectrum and Spec- trum versions so Mike has simplified the options for the Arnold. You still have just as many weapons to choose from and can, still throw your sword or dagger- but the key combinations have been made easier. A useful hint for players h that the trident is the most powerful weapon Mr Reagan believes that too. You can use two tridents despite the software recom- mending that you select a shield.

There are many types of w r eapon including a ruler, which Mike says is there because of the ruler fights he used to have at school, You could arrange a fight to the death with rulers.

If you get really bored you can set the computer to fight itself, gambling on the outcome. I look forward to seeing the finished program. B Li I t toNexi 1 evd 4 ireen cllv Rock.

It automatically logs- on as drive B or drive C in two drive systems and does not require extra power supply. When fitted the directory uses 2K thus leaving K for storage, over 70K more than the normal discs, 0 Data and programs can be exchanged between the Silicon Disc and a normal disc, application programs can then work on the data at vastly increased speed especially on systems with only one normal drive. This ability means that you can write much larger basic programs and sophisticated programs that use pull-down menus with ease.

When using either of the expansions with CPM 2. The port determines which particular combinations of the original four 16K sub blocks and any new sub blocks from the expansion RAM will occupy the 64K address space at any time. All of this switching is done automatically by the software supplied. Orders are normally despatched within 24 hours and if you have any further queries concerning our products do not hesitate to give us a ring or send us a large stamped addressed envelope for our latest free 84 page technical manual covering our Amstrad product range.

I I 1 1 tnge of powerful peripherals to and Amstrad Computers pliment their style and colour. There are three main reasons for buying one. Firstly t it will print out long program listings.

Secondly , it will produce letters and correspondence, Thirdly, it will output graphics. Graphics and letter-quality print are usually produced by application pro- grams which will have installation procedures to tell the program what printer it is being used with.

When dot matrix printers were first available the print quality was poor and you could clearly see that the characters were made up uf dots. They were fast and cheap, so they were perfect for spooling off reams of listings.

But they didn't produce very professional Looking letters. The reason the manufacturers don't go all the way and call it Letter Quality is partly because, although they're good, they're not as perfect as daisywheel printers. The other reason is that they're saving the name LQ for a new generation of dot matrix printers that really will make daisywheel printing redundant. Robert Schifreen looks at the three leading contenders matrix printers. Each is capable of graphics, and will also print in draft mode fast and NLQ mode not so fast.

Having used many printers over a number of years T you get to like some features and despise others. I used to keep a list of which features impressed me on a particular model, arid which were so annoying that they almost made me change back to an older printer.

For this review, I dug out that list and applied each of its entries to the printers under test. These are the official retail prices for the models tested, Like any piece of equipment, it is well worth shopping around. Removing the packing revealed three good Looking machines. Its tractor unit is built in and doesn't add to the total height of the printer.

The additional tractor feed units nn the Citizen and Epson models almost double their overall height. Speed trials The first thing I did after unpacking the printers was to test them for speed.

Adverts usually measure print speed in characters per second. This doesn't take into account the time taken for a line feed -when the end of a line is reached and the paper has to be moved up through the printer by one line. This file was around 11 pages long and contained some long lines , some short lines and one or two form teed characters Print samples: Bottom, Near Letter Quality where the paper is advanced by one whole page. All three print bidirectionaliy in draft mode. It also makes the machine much faster.

Print quality You can judge for yourself the quality of the output from the samples on this page. My opinion is that in the draft mode the OKI wins because the dots are closest together.

But it's still easy to tell that the output was produced by a dot matrix printer. For NLQ quality t he Epson wins hands down although some of the diagonal lines are a little jagged.

With the Citizen in draft mode it was easy to see the individual dots in the characters. Its NLQ typeface looks like the ones used to produce gas bills, for example, and I wasn't a great fan of it r Before you completely rule out a Citizen, though, see the section on graphics. Documentation Printer manuals have always had a bad reputation. If a subject was important it probably wouldn't be in the manual, and if ii was you wouldn't be able to find it- Epson started the ball rolling in producing decent documentation, and it's clear from looking at other manufac- turers' efforts that they have studied Epson's theories in detail.

The Citizen and Epson manuals assume that the printer is going to be used by a Basic programmer. The OKI manual is similar, but does have a chapter on installing the printer specifically for Wordstar, Visit-ale, Superwriter and Su percale. Epson has a chapter on using the LXSO with certain computers and is the only one with a troub I es h ooting section in case the printer doesn't always do what the manual says it wilh For me, the most useful part, of a manual is the index at the back.

Having the information in the manual is one thing, being able to find it is another. The OKI manual has no index so relying on The manuals the contents list at the front will get you nowhere fast.

The Citizen manual is a little better , with a pull-out reference card at the back. This contains a very brief note on each command, and a page reference too. Epson's manual is the best, While the information may not be arranged in the most logical order DIP switch settings are at the back, for example , the index is quite good and contains a full list of all commands. There's a pull-out reference card too, though this one doesn't have a page number reference on it. DIP switches DIP switches are the tiny switches you need to set according to certain charac- teristics of your micro, such as whether an extra line feed character is added to carriage returns.

You can also specify such things as the size of paper you are using, whether you want the buz7er to sound when the machine runs out of paper and so on. You'll set the DIP switches when you first buy the printer and will never need to alter them, unless you have more than one machine, or you want to change the settings occasionally. What's more, any optional interface boards that you had installed would need to be removed as well Luckily, things are now easier.

The switches on the Epson are at the back of the printer. With the Citizen, they are on the pull-out interface and on the OKI you have to remove a small cover at the back of the machine to reveal them.

Ribbon life Ef you plan to use your printer frequently you'll want one with a long ribbon life. All three ribbons are in throw-away cartridges which are easy to replace but fairly expensive. All are quoted at being able to print around two million characters None is re-inkable. Paper feeding All three printers were fairly easy to load with paper. The OKI t though, has a lid through which the paper passes on its way out of the printer. This means that you can't really lift the lid to see what's happening while the text is being printed as you have to wait until it has moved up by around six lines before the print passes out through the lid.

Once the paper has left a printer, it seems to have a mind of its own. According to the shape of various devices on top the paper will curl up in front of the printer, or behind it, or will get tangled and start to feed itself back into the printer and jam up.

This latter case describes perfectly the Epson LX With continuous paper, it's very hard to keep it coming out smoothly without giving it a helping hand after every page or so. The same goes for the Citizen, although this machine was quite happy as long as you didn't mind the paper coming out and piling up behind the printer. Trying to make the paper feed out forwards was difficult. Only the OKI gave me enough confidence to leave it printing, happy that it would not tangle up its paper.

What's more, it is the only printer with a straight edge to the lid that lets you tear off the paper once the job has finished. Noise In a quiet room or office, any printer sounds noisy, It's not so much the actual amount of noise it makes that bothers people, but the pitch, A high noise is easier to hear, and the Epson's was the highest, OKI was the lowest. Even so t with any of the printers going, I could not comfortably carry on a telephone conver- sation in the same room.

Graphics Each machine allows you to produce graphics and special characters, Gra- phics mode means that, instead of printing whole characters that are made of dots, you can control each dot individually to make your own designs. Some applications programs use this facility to produce graphs, for example, though doing it yourself from Basic is time consuming. It is well known that the Amstrad micros have only a 7 bit parallel interface. This means that Ascii charac- ters with codes greater than cannot be sent to the printer.

This is not normally important when printing text, but is crucial with graphics. If you intend to produce your own, you will need to consider a printer that can control the eighth bit.

So to send a character you would send the eighth-bit command followed by a character 1, Only the Citizen printer has this feature, which should be borne: The Citizen and Epson printers allow you to set various typestyles by tapping out various combinations on the control panel.

Pressing this tells the printer that it is at the top of a sheet, so it can then work out where the bottom of the sheet is in word processing. Without this button, you have to turn the printer on and off again to set the top of form position. Buffers The Citizen has the largest buffer fitted as standard. It will store about a minute's worth of text after the computer has finished sending. The Epson and OKI printers store only a couple of lines.

The verdict I started by saying that before buying a printer you have to know what it's going to be used for t If it's mainly for producing letters and correspondence, the Epson's NLQ is the best of the three. For printing mainly program listings,, or where quality is not vital, the OKI wins on speed and performance, A very impressive printer, and good value. For general printing purposes, again I would say that the OKI represents the best value for money. Its NLQ face is only very slightly inferior to the Epson's and the printer is a fast all rounder.

However, its commands are not as widely used as the Epson standard, and some appli- cation! Its main advantage is being able to control the eighth bit, which is essential for graphics. Digital integration ruBW A M. This is the second month of our readers chart where you get to vote for the games you think axe best, not just the ones that make the Gallup chart. We haven't had a full month's response to our first chart but by the next issue we should have things running smoothly.

We don't want votes for games that aren't available yet any of these will be disqualified. Last month we published the Editor's Top Ten ail time favourites, this month it's Alex's turn. There is a prize for the first form pulled out. This month we have awarded a prize of a Dk'Tronics speech synthesiser to Mr A. Watson, of Inverness, Scotland. Alex saiys send your votes to: By now, megalomania should be setting in - so jump to it and get the coupon off to us for more details now!

Following these stages and using the comprehensive manual will enable you to blend words and pictures to produce printed materials for a wide range of applications.

It is now three months and the Runcorn Hoapice for the Slightly Bon- kers have not tracked me down yet, so prepare to endure another column by the Hairy Hacker, Serves you right for buying A CU, dunnit? Nonterraqueous has been about for a little while, and so has this poke, sent in by someone who can't spell infinite sic Don't forget to wind past the loader: That is, you can get. Now a little proggyette to churn all the output to the screen out on a printer. You run it save it!

I'll let you figure out which does what: My bit turns them positive in a cryptic fashion. For those wi h hacked joysticks, here arc a few second -fire pokes: Soul of a Robot: CALL That one lets the score screen switch out on the second fire, so that you can boost your ego more regularly.

If anyone is interested in converting the Quickahot II joystick to dual fire, drop us a line and we may make an article of it. Now here's some stuff from a hacker who really knows where his breakpoints are, none other than Stewart C, Russell of Glasgow, d'ye ken'?

His contribution to the column rates the accolade of Hack of The Month. So, Stewart, send a letter by Royal Snail to me at The Hairy Hackers Hovel and tell us what games tape you would like as a bribe, er, reward. Any rookie hackers reading this might like to try their luck next month, eh? To use it, RUN the tape as per normal.

Now any wally can make it to the enemy HQ. Here's the clever bit: You will doubtless hear more from the hacking Scotsman, he has many more POKEs in his sporran almost a poke hero T geddit?

Poke, sounds like folk. Some of you may have acoustic couplers on your modems. If you have a Hayes-compatible, auto-dial, auto- answer, self-scanning, WS thing, go read a more upmarket column, otherwise here are some tips.

Put it on top of a towel. All hackers have to know where their towel is. Towels are immensely useful things, you curi wrap them round you for warmth, put them round your head to ward off the ravenous Bug blatter Beast of Traal or even dry yourself with them. They also stop vibrations travelling through the table from heavy lorries, furious poun- ding at the keyboard and eggs exploding in the microwave, up into the modem. Pubs leave just the right sized towels on top of the bar, but have the courtesy to buy a pint or two first before asking, of course.

This month his offering to the Great God Glitch is a way of mangling Fairlight, It don't mean taking an axe to your synthesiser. This little program should solve any problems you may be having with the game. These are the options which it gives you. First, no loss of energy from contact with the bad guys, none of the doors are locked anymore and there are no longer any carrying weight restric- tions. Although you can still only carry five items, these can be anything - even five barrels they weigh a tun.

This makes the game look less like it's crashed and you can see that Bo has got one hell of a fast fill routine! Next is the option to blindfold the baddies, which means they wander around completely oblivious to your presence, or do nothing if they normally chase you.

The last pokes make the list of objects shift over to the left hand side of the screen lor those who prefer to have all your character's info in one place, The only problem with this is that the start up screen listing your control keys gets shifted to the right a bit.

In the usual way, key it in, save it for future use and delete any lines contain- ing any features you don't want. For instance if you don't want all doors unlocked, delete line If you don't want to have the objects on the left, delete lines to 2: You can delete as many of the program's features as you like, as long as you don't touch lines 10 to and line The game will now load and play as normal - except for the added features, Two quickies before I go.

Quickie number two is that the same happens in Three Weeks in Paradise if you hold down the keys K A T H, Does anybody else know any more like ihis that they wish to share? Well, ih fit's all folks! If you would like to work with the Best for Maximum Reword either Directly or on a Freelance Basis contact in confidence: Because now there's a machine that puts real wordprocessing power within everyone's reach.

The Amstrad PCW is a complete word- processor and a powerful computer in one unit. And its unbelievably low price includes a screen with built-in disc drive, keyboard, printer and word processing software. It's a complete wordprocessor The PCW is totally equipped for word- processing. It has a high resolution screen with 90 columns and 32 lines of text.

There's also an optional combined serial and parallel interface that gives you access to modem, additional printers and other peripherals. And you can even add an extra 1 M byte drive. Training The POT comes with a comprehensive user guide that tells you, in simple language, how to master its wordprocessing and computer capabilities. But if you want to get to grips with it even quicker, there are now f a great number of training courses available throughout the country, — - On-si te maintenance Amstrad computers arc exceptionally reliable.

Rut many business users find it reassuring to know that nationwide on-site service and maintenance contracts can be arranged, The 82 key key board is specifically designed for wordprocessing. Its special function keys allow you to refer to pull dow n menus as you work, so you dorit have to memorise complicated codes. And the PCW has an integrated printer with compatible software that gives you a choice of letter quality and high speed drafting capabilities.

Finally, [here's an automatic paper load system, as well as tractor feed for continuous stationery. It's a powerful computer The POX is also a purpose built computer with an enormous k memory. For computer buffs, the Mallard basic, Dr Logo and GSX graphics system extensions will mean you can write your own programs All of which puts the ordinary office typewriter firmly in its place. Now you can connect your CPC to a whole host of musical instruments.

David "Dolby" Radisic looks at the Midi interface from Electro music Research The computer world has RS, a standard which means that any bit of equipment can be connec- ted to any other. In , the state mandated summer school programs in all school systi Most students that were not promoted at the end of the regular school si attended summer school.

A number of them were promoted to thi sucessfully completing the summer session. Since promotion policies vary among administrative units, care should be exercised in making comparisons of non-promotion rates, particularly at the secondary level.

Many secondary schools require the completion of a fixed number of Carnegie units or of a required curriculum to advance to the next grade level. In many cases, non-promotion of a grade in high school may indicate the failure of a single course rather than the entire or o- course load for that grade level.

Exceptional pupil memberships are incl in the total non-promotion rate. With this method, residential births and grade membership are used to calculate the grade survival ratios. In an effort to obtain stable ratios, a period of five years of historical data is used. The projected information has proven valuable to all phases of school planning both at the state and local levels.

Table 8 summarizes ADM projections by grade level for the state while Table 9 gives the projected final ADM for each school administrative unit. Exceptional Pupils Information on the numbers of exceptional students identified and served by primary handicapping classification as of December 1 is a part of the certi- fied headcount submitted to the Division of Student Information Management each year. During non-survey years, the same data is collected by the Department of Public Education.

These figures should not be confused with average daily membership. Table 11 is a summary of the pupils in membership for by race and sex for each administrative unit and also gives state totals. Oi-1 z i-i du. UJ UJ k Qi-: Intentions of the graduates are reported by the following categories: Table 13 is the state summary of graduates' intentions.

Table 14 presents a five-year history of this information. High school graduates' intentions for each administrative unit can be found in Part II of this publication. Projections of High School Graduates A ten-year projection of the number of high school graduates of local public school systems is presented in Table The projections are updated annually in the fall and are used by planners of post- secondary institutions.

The future number of high school graduates in each school administrative unit is determined by the prevailing birth counts, immigration and emigration rates into and out of the region, promotions, and school dropout patterns. For the state as a whole, the total number of high school graduates will slightly increase for the next two years due to the relatively large live birth count from to The downward trend will resume again from to O O I XrHza: Students drop out of school for many reasons.

Some of the well documented ones are: The figures are estimated from information supplied to the Department of Public Education by local school systems throughout the state. Because a significant number of students drop out during the summer months when school is not in session, the annual dropout rate must be estimated.

Precise dropout statistics require an individual follow-up of students leaving school prior to graduation to determine their educational status. While some high schools conduct such follow-up studies, the vast majority do not. The extended day dropout rate has been calculated separately from the regular school program for the following reasons: No attempt has been made, therefore, to estimate the number of students who drop out over the summer months from extended day programs. To calculate the extended day program dropout rate, the actual number of reported dropouts is divided by the actual headcount of students in the program.

Users of the dropout data should be cautioned about two points. First, in comparing North Carolina's estimated annual high school dropout rate with those of other states remember that wide variations exist among the states in the definition of dropouts and the methods of calculating the rates. Any comparison to the other states should be made only with a full and complete understanding of the statistical methods used to arrive at the published rates.

Second, our estimated rates have an error without a known magnitude. All empirical evidence, when available, showed a very small error rate.

Therefore, in using historical trends, very small changes in the year to year figures should be interpreted with great care since they may be the result of estimation errors.

However, a persistent trend can be interpreted as evidence of real change. Following is a detailed description of the information sources and data gathered from them. Public School Personnel Summary Table 17 is a summary of all full-time personnel employed as of October 1, , at the school and central office level as reported on the Public School Full -Time Personnel Report.

This report collects data on full-time personnel by activity assignment, sex, race, and source of funds. Definitions of activity assignment classifications are given on Page II Experience Status of Instructional Personnel The experience status of instructional personnel is collected annually on the Professional Personnel Activity Report; this report is completed by all school-level professional personnel and any central office personnel who have instructional duties.

The information presented in Table 18 by administrative unit and state totals is a summary of the experience status of all full- and part-time principals, assistant principals, guidance counselors, librarians, and classroom teachers.

Highest Degree Held by Professional Personnel The information presented in Table 19 represents the educational level of all certificated professional personnel employed this year full- or part-time at school and central office levels.

Please note that it is the highest degree held that is reported here, not necessarily the degree upon which salary is based. The information in this table comes from teacher certification files. C0 UJ HI u. The pi rcenf ranks that have been computed are based upon full- tin eni emp 1 oyment. The percent rai I teai hers with graduate degrees include all who hold a bachelor's. The percent and rankings of classroom teachers experience include all who are teaching this year for the first time.

The third category of information is the percent and ranking of pi sional staff paid entirely from local funds. This information is based upon the full-time-equivalents of all professional personnel employed at the central office or school level and who are paid entirely from local funds.

In addition to various revenue and expenditure da are two tables at the end of the section to put these data Ln t Lve. Since the fiscal years and the school years do not coincide, thi this section are one or more years behind the data found Ln other sect ions of this publication. Data obtained from external sources, such as the di e by counties, may lag two years behind. Expenditures of some institutions, even though they are public 1 are excluded from the data presented in this section.

Specifically, the expenditures of the Governor Morehead School, the North Carolina schools for the deaf, the Fort Bragg and Camp Lejeune military base schools, and Cherokee- Indian Reservation schools are not included in the totals. The total expenditures for a school year are grouped into two major categories: The amount of capital expense expenditures fluctuate considerably from year to year.

The current expense expenditures on the other hand, being closely tied to the number of students, are more stable. All derived statis- tics such as per pupil expenditures, are computed for current expense expendi- tures only. This is especially true for statistics that can meaningfully be compared over several years.

One derived statistic, "per pupil expenditure," is of special interest since it is quoted and compared most often. In the tables of this section it is computed only for current expense expenditures by using the final avi. Other publications, especially those from the national sources, use the average daily attendance ADA in computing this statistic. Since average daily membership is greater than the average daily attendance, the latter method yields a higher figure for the "per pupil expenditures.

The first two, "State" and "Federal" are the amounts spent for education from the budgets of state and federal governments respectively.

The "local" expenditures, on the other hand, are not synonymous with the amounts expended by the local county governments. All expenditures not funded by the state or the federal governments are regarded as "local" expenditures. As such, they include all funds supplied from the local governments and other local sources. There are two tables in this section that list the per pupil expenditures for each school system. One includes all current expense expenditures while the other excludes all expenditures connected with school food service activities.

The need for two separate tables emerged from our definition of "local" expenditures. Since the expenditures students make in purchasing their lunches are not funded by the state or federal governments, they are regarded as part of the local expenditures. In some contexts, however, there is a need to bring the local expenditures as close to the amounts spent by local governments as possible.

The second per pupil expenditure table is designed to respond to that need. DUOl Ui 2 oo: EwhCl a z a: SO so so so Is. It is prepared by the Division of School Planning from the data collected by the N. In the table, the amount of financial resources available to the local county governments is compared to the total amount of expenditures for public education from the local sources. Since the county financial information is not available earlier, the data of the table is a year behind the other financial data in this section of the Profile.

We have made an effort to include all revenues available to county govern- ments for which the elected county officials have allocation discretion. Funds which are not available for general distribution are excluded from the total revenue resources; categorical grants, utility revenues, revenues from the sale of other governmental services such as fire protection charges, library service revenues, etc.

The following is a list of revenue sources which are included in the "Selected Revenue Resources" column: Countywide property tax School district property tax Other district property tax Revenue in lieu of property taxes Fines License tax Excise stamp Local sales tax A. However, they include an estimate of the school food service expenditures financed by the local government funds. In counties that contain more than one school unit, the share of county and city transpor- tation costs are estimated by prorating costs in proportion to the total bus miles logged by each unit.

The items such as contract transportation that are allocated directly to each unit are excluded from the proration. Costs of bus replacement are included in transportation figures.

School Buses 13, school buses were in operation in 21, trips were made each school day one way Pupils Transported , pupils were transported to and from school each day , pupils were transported by school bus The number of classes and course membership in grades seven through twelve are as follows: This guide has been included for use as a quick explanation of the sources and time frames of the information presented in this publica- tion.

Please read the guide carefully before proceeding in order to avoid misinterpretation of the data. This information comes from the Principal's Monthly Report completed by each school in each school administrative unit.

Caution must be taken not to compare the final enrollment to that of the first school month enrollment for enrollment, by definition, only increases during the school year. The exceptional pupils EXCP reported are only those special students served in self-contained classrooms. Trainable mentally handicapped students are included in a separate column.

See page for a definition of enrollment. ADM Average daily membership is included for the final average and for the first month of These data are also computed from the Principal's Monthly Report. Average daily membership is a more realistic figure than enrollment for general reference to pupils in school; the final average daily membership is used to compute the per pupil expenditure of current expense expenditures.

Exceptional pupils EXCP reported are only those special students served in self-contained classrooms. Trainable mentally handicapped students TMH are included separately. See page for a definition of average daily membership. ADA Average daily attendance is included for each administrative unit for the final average and for the first month of and is also computed from the Principal's Monthly Report.

Average daily attendance is an average of the number of students actually in attendance during the school year final ADA or during a school month. Trainable mentally handicapped students TMH are included sep- arately. See page for a definition of average daily attendance. MLD Membership last day is presented for the last day of the school year for and is a count of the number of students actually in membership on the last school day of the year.

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